Most public schools are traditionally run by principals and administrators, who defer to policies dictated by the state. But a group of 60 schools across the country is subverting the top-down system, putting teachers in full control of running their schools.

It’s called the Teacher Powered Schools initiative, led by Education Evolving, and the goal is to seed a movement that will inspire other teachers in schools across the country to realize their potential as leaders. To that end, Education Evolving released a study [PDF]  in partnership with Center for Teaching Quality, which indicates that 91 percent of Americans believe teachers should have greater influence over decisions that affect student learning. What’s more, 81 percent of Americans indicate they trust teachers to make “schools run better.”

In this model of teacher-run schools, teams of teachers “work collaboratively as leaders and partners to make professional decisions over the areas that matter most for their students, including selection of colleagues, evaluation, budget and resources, curriculum and school-level policymaking.”

Teachers surveyed said the biggest impact to student learning would be the opportunity to have more control over school-based decisions.

So what would a teacher-led school look like? Carrie Bakken, one of the founders of Avalon School, a grade 6-12 charter school in St. Paul, Minnesota, described how a teacher-powered school operates, at the EWA conference in Nashville.

At Avalon, there are 17 teachers and 190 students, 35 percent of who are recognized as special-needs. Bakken is one of the teachers, and in addition to teaching, she has designated time to tend to actually running the school. She has a hand in deciding everything from class curriculum, teachers’ salaries, budgets, benefits, whom to hire and fire.

The model has worked well for this school: Avalon has a 95-100 percent teacher-retention rate, the last teacher having left two years ago because she retired. And because their teachers tend to stick around, they all know that all the hard work they put into their strategic planning will be carried out by teachers who have complete buy-in and are invested in seeing it succeed.

Those interested in Avalon’s state test scores can note that the school has a higher rate of proficiency than St. Paul public schools, Bakken said, despite the fact that more than one-third of their students come from difficult backgrounds, including homelessness, substance abuse, being disengaged in school, and falling far behind in school work. “We’re not just taking the ‘cream from the top,’” she said in reference to criticisms that high-achieving charter schools pick and choose high-achieving students. “We have big cross section of students.”

But high test scores are not this school’s main objective. Putting power in the hands of teachers also means that students have much more control over their learning. The school takes a student-led, project-based approach to the curriculum, and has created a “constructive culture with student power at the center where they’re learning a framework for governance,” Bakken said. (Check out last year’s students’ projects).

“We’re modeling democracy at work, with self-directed projects, where students can mediate conflicts, make laws, and contribute to [school policies],” she said.

Students become accountable for their experience, and become agents of their own learning. If teachers feel powerless, then their students feel powerless too. But if a student can go to a teacher, knowing that they have a hand in making a decision that will have a direct impact, then students feel they have power too.


Though it’s gratifying in many ways, it’s not an easy path, Bakken said. And paradoxically, the benefits happen to be the same as the challenges.

“I’m constantly learning things, but I’m also constantly learning new things,” she said.

Avalon doesn’t have a district central office that can interpret new policies, and when the state budget is in crisis, the teachers have to figure out what steps to take to stay solvent. What’s more, collaboration doesn’t always come naturally — it  takes practice and work. “I enjoy being able to work to get to the best solution possible, but it can be time consuming,” she said. “Sometimes I feel like I have 26 other bosses.”

Teacher Powered SchoolWhen it comes to teacher evaluations, the staff “police each other,” Bakken says. Plus, they hire coaches to observe them, and work with a personnel committee on those specific issues that come up. “We get a lot of feedback from each other,” she said.

Xian Barrett, of VIVA Teachers, which works to increase teachers’ participation in making policy decisions about public education, pointed out a key point in making this work-by-consensus successful: “If you have trust in a room, consensus works much more effectively,” he said.

And it’s this level of collaboration and equality in running the school that gives teachers’ the voice they’ve been yearning for.

“The more power you give away, the more power you have,” Barrett said.

It’s also important to note that, although there’s a support network and plenty of advice to make a school teacher-powered, there’s no prescriptive blueprint. “There’s no one telling you, ‘You’re going to do this and do it this way,’” Bakken said. “Teachers have to develop it organically. “

In fact, teachers can do this alongside principals – so long as there’s buy-in from principals. Some school leaders may choose to look at ceding control to teachers as a way of helping them, though others might say they’re just subverting authority.

“You’re a great leader if you’re not threatened by the concept,” Bakken said.

And with those supportive principals, educators can have autonomy over their classrooms, even about such issues as having input into assessments being used.


Having teachers feel and be empowered as school leaders has many benefits, according to Barnett Berry, founder of Center for Teaching Quality. High among them is establishing trust among students, parents, and teachers.

“No one knows better what students need than the teachers,” Berry said. For this reason alone, schools must make it a priority to allow teachers to make important decisions that will directly affect their students.

Berry cites examples of schools in Singapore and Finland that create the space for teachers to develop leadership skills and take more control over school policies. “They have the time to both teach and lead,” he said.

But there are big barriers to overcome in making this model the norm, he added. Too many schools have organizational schedules that force teachers to be isolated from each other. There’s a lasting belief that teachers are all the same and must play the same roles. Highly successful teachers may surface “inconvenient truths for reform.” And the accountability systems in place discourage both teachers and administrators from taking risks.

“Leadership is all about risk taking,” Berry said.


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  • Richard P Celley

    Of the 40 or soteachers I encountered while my two children were going through public school I would say that maybe five would be succesful in this scheme. I would guess that the reality is probably only three would choose to work in this environment. Basically my point remains the same, which is that most teachers starting out are simply not educated or intelligent enough to actually teach anyone anything. I think this seems a great system but the few who can do it would at some point expect to be paid what truly educated and effective professionals are paid and the money just isn’t there. Those five or six out of forty are the people who would, in the current system, go on to get higher degrees and become principals making 80-100 thousand a year. In this scheme those people all must maximize their earnings at considerably less as teachers sharing a pot which is still, as a whole, determined by others. Often those others are still less educated and lower earning especially in rural districts. Please don’t take this comment wrong. I am very supportive of public education and have many friends and acquaintances who are in education in some way but it is a system which may have lost sight of its purpose and needs to be reinvented for a new century. Anyone who has suffered having children in it overvthe last twenty years knows this reality.

  • Anthony Pina

    How does this differ from the Teachers as Owners model employed by EdVisions and the Minnesota New Country school for two decades?

    • Kim Farris-BErg

      It doesn’t, Anthony. Just a new name for it that embraces the way EdVisions does it as well as the way other teachers, states, districts, unions, and charter authorizers are approaching it.

  • WriteLearning

    This seems like a step in the right direction, but why just a step? Why stop at empowering teachers? Roughly three dozen Sudbury schools around the world have demonstrated for nearly 50 years now that running schools democratically—and including students as full members of that democracy—is not only possible but produces the most extraordinary results. At places like Alpine Valley School (, students direct their own learning in addition to overseeing all aspects of school operations from rule making/enforcing to budgeting and personnel. For their part, the adult staff assume a role that blends teaching and mentoring with administrative work.

    Not only are young people capable of handling this level of responsibility: it also affords them the opportunity to practice such real-world skills as setting their own priorities, managing their time, allocating resources, conflict resolution, and creative problem solving. As a result, Sudbury students develop superlative self-awareness, maturity, resilience, and resourcefulness. Let’s not settle for measures that seek to improve, yet remain within, the existing adult-driven paradigm. Students have not only the right, but also the capacity, to direct their own learning and run their own schools.

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  • grassyoung

    Having teachers feel and be empowered as school leaders has many benefits.steel silo

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  • Eileen Davis

    My favorite quote in this article speaks volumes in a classroom setting, “The more power you give away, the more power you get.” This works will all humans because being competent, autonomous and accepted are desired by kids too.

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