Picture a “genius” — you’ll probably conjure an image of an Einstein-like character, an older man in a rumpled suit, disorganized and distracted even as he, almost accidentally, stumbles upon his next “big idea.” In truth, the acclaimed scientist actually said, “It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer.” But the narrative around Einstein and a lot of accomplished geniuses — think Ben Franklin, the key and the bolt of lightning — tends to focus more on mind-blowing talent and less on the hard work behind the rise to success. A downside of the genius mythology results in many kids trudging through school believing that a great student is born, not made — lucky or unlucky, Einstein or Everyman.

Harvard-educated tutors Hunter Maats and Katie O’Brien began to notice that this belief about being born smart was creating a lot of frustration for the kids they tutored, and sometimes unwittingly reinforced by their parents. “We had sessions working with a student where the mom would walk by and say, ‘Oh, he didn’t get the math gene!’” said O’Brien. “And I’d think, Gee, give the kid a reason to never even try.”

“Try,” it seems, is the magical and operative word that has the possibility to transform how well a student does in school — once they understand a little about how to try, and a little about how learning and the brain works. How students think about learning makes a difference in what they’re able to achieve. Groundbreaking research conducted by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck has shown that when students take on a growth mindset – one in which they believe that the brain is malleable, and they can improve at a task with effort – they handle setbacks better and improve academically.

Maats and O’Brien knew about all the research, and began sharing information about learning and the brain with their students. They turned their one-on-ones into a book, The Straight-A Conspiracy, to show teenagers that they had control, for a large part, over how they did in school, and that believing certain kids were born talented was a grand conspiracy to keep them down and stressed out (with tongue planted firmly in cheek). The authors use the latest research in psychology and neuroscience to try and convince teens, with lots of pop culture references and humor thrown in, that understanding how their brain learns can help them “totally rule the world.”

Maats explained that often students he tutored had watched another kid in class blow through an assignment and assumed they were just naturally good at it, that they didn’t even have to try. But he began clarifying the real reason they worked so fast; the student knew the answer right away because “it had become automatic,” he said. “They looked effortless, but they only became effortless through hard work.” Unlike sports or music, where students can see others practicing, much of schoolwork practice happens at home, builds slowly over time, and goes unseen. “You don’t see the work others are doing, so it looks like it never happened,” Maats said.

[RELATED: Eight Ways of Looking at Intelligence]

O’Brien said that “geniuses” also know how to focus their attention, and that’s why they may appear calm. “That overwhelmed feeling is coming from attention being focused on too many things that are not automated at once,” she said. “You can’t focus on two things you don’t know – but neither could Einstein!” Explaining one of the largest conspiracies they face with students, and parents’ biggest complaint, student multitasking, they disseminate the research for the teenage brain:

“Your attention can only deal with one unautomated task at a time. The idea that your attention can multitask is a major myth… When you’re trying to do all four of these tasks – walking, chewing gum, talking to your friend and reading Huckleberry Finn – the first two won’t be affected, because you’ve automated them. You can keep walking and chewing gum without even noticing they’re happening. But each of the new activities – holding a new conversation and reading a new book – requires your full attention in order to go well… But the more important point is that you just don’t want to put yourself through that! It’s totally manic!… The more stuff you pile on at once, the more time pressure you add to the situation, the more you start to feel really overwhelmed.”

By using concrete research in a way that speaks directly to teenagers, Maats and O’Brien hope to dispel the image of the rumpled genius, being brilliant in spite of himself. Instead, they want students to know that there are proven techniques that can improve their school performance and get parents and teachers off their back (a particular favorite is “Go Cyborg on Your Mistakes,” an extended “Terminator” metaphor that relates the idea of focused practice). And they seem to relish explaining that the straight-A student is working harder than kids think.

[RELATED: Can Everyone Be Smart At Everything?]

“You would never put a child into the driver’s seat of a car, with no license and no drivers’ ed, and expect him to be able to cruise down the highway successfully, with no fear or hesitation,” said O’Brien. “And yet kids are sent to school with no manual on how to use their brains. Not what to learn but how to learn. The result is that everyone spends their days in school guessing what might be the best approach, the most effective technique…and the questioning about the how takes a lot of time and attention away from what needs to be learned.”

Debunking the Genius Myth 25 September,2013Holly Korbey

  • deserteacher

    Excellent article–a great encouragement for all who never qualified for a GATE class. Eighty-five percent of students have potential to do well in school if offered the opportunity and necessary environment, and, of course, have been convinced they have the ability to do so.

  • Bart Miller

    Fantastic and timely article. This is the kind of research teachers need to properly rock the education system and make school about learning, first and foremost. Bill Evans, jazz pianist and recognized “genius”, insisted that his abilities and creativity were the result of focused practice and careful reflection, not talent: http://ideasymphony.blogspot.jp/2013/06/bill-evans-creative-process-and-self.html

  • Robin

    Hunter Maats, author, tutored my daughter throughout high school where he practiced this revolutionary approach to learning. Average grades shot up to Straight A’s by junior year, just in time for the highly competitive college application process! Borrowing from the best science in educational psychology, the book is a fun, practical guide that dispels the myths surrounding geniuses and teaches kids how the brain really works and then uses the resulting confidence to inspire them to take the straight forward actions to succeed in any subject.

    As a mother and therapist, I appreciate the way in which the authors discuss the role of teenage emotionality, and its effect on learning. There is an important chapter about managing emotions–a cognitive thought process that allows the brain to override interfering emotion and redirect attention. This process gives students the self-sufficiency to believe in their own potential and take charge of their own educations. For me, seeing my daughter become academically independent, was such a relief. She recently graduated from Emerson College and is working in her field at a top network news station.

    The Straight-A Conspiracy is as important an educational book as any I’ve ever read–and I’ve read A Lot of them! It truly works…


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  • Mrs.Hoagie

    And now you’ve taken one problem of modern education, and turned it into another. Yes, kids need to know they can do anything if they practice, but at some point or another, they’re going to have to work hard.

    But some kids really do seem to “just know” a lot of what’s taught in schools for a number of years. They’re the kids who somehow learned to read long before school, without any help from parents or teachers. They’re the kids who somehow just “get” that 1+1=2, and often figure out that half+half=a whole before school starts, too… and a whole lot more.

    But your “grand conspiracy” theory has declared that these kids do not exist. And of course, if they don’t exist, the schools don’t have to deal with them.

    The problem is, they DO exist. I’ve got those kids. And my kids, like any other kids, deserve to learn in school. They deserve to learn that they have to work hard. And if the schools refuse to acknowledge they exist, and refuse to offer appropriately hard schoolwork, then MY kids never get the chance to work hard… at least not for the first 2-4-6+ years of school.

    And guess what happens after 2-4-6+ years of non-challenging schoolwork, when they finally hit something challenging? They freeze. They Panic. They FAIL. Exactly what you’re talking about above happens to the rest of the kids when they think that those “really smart” kids do exist.

    Why is it that in order for gifted kids to exist, other kids have to give up, or in order for other kids to learn to try hard, gifted kids have to become extinct? What makes educators so bent on this false dichotomy?

    And most important of all, why can’t we teach ALL kids that they have to try, and to work hard, and to practice, by giving them appropriately hard work in school from the earliest years?

    • jurisdictum

      Lets go ahead and talk about one topic at a time…..
      I’ve known plenty of gifted kids that suffer from the process your described. Guess what? They tend to get over it when they are older. That can not be said for other 99% if the dummies that aren’t cursed with high natural intelligence; and that is what this article is about.
      If your kids are born with 160 IQ, don’t expect the general public to argue for extensive investment into assuring they get an A on their report card. Limited resources….

      • KarinC

        It’s simply not true that gifted kids (who, incidentally, become gifted adults) typically “get over” the problem of not knowing how to work hard. Many gifted adults fail to reach their full potential because they have never been taught the very things this article is advocating: students learning the value of hard work through seeing it’s results. When a gifted child is placed in a standard classroom and not appropriately challenged, they learn that there is no value in trying. Nobody sees the results of their efforts, or they are given busy work to fill in their time while classmates catch up. Then there is the judgement and ridicule because people feel threatened by these children’s very real perceptual differences. Talk about demotivating.

        Yes, the gifted population is a minority (an estimated 2% of the population), but by ignoring the very same need for an evidence-based success scheme, we are telling our most brilliant students that effort has no value for them. These students then enter the workforce as frustrated underachievers who continue to fight ingrained laziness, impostor syndrome, depression and a misunderstanding of their value to the world. Let’s face it- today’s education system tells gifted kids that they are the least important kids in the school. Special needs kids (another minority of about 2%) get the help they need, the other 96% of the “average” kids get the bulk of the attention; so why don’t gifted kids get the same? We are seriously handicapping our nation by advocating the notion that these kids will simply sort themselves out along the way. Without intervention, many don’t. It shouldn’t have to be an either-or; these kids deserve appropriate challenge and a growing understanding that hard work pays off as much as the next student does.

    • TheOneManWithTheOneVote

      I am one of those kids, forty years older. And left-handed to boot. Despite teachers’ wishing me out of existence, I survived the experience. I may not be a ray of sunshine but I am now a fully-actualised divergent thinker with a high IQ (their worst nightmare), working as researcher in Ed Tech and I am PASSIONATE about creating education systems that don’t use teachers.

      Thanks to those people, the only time I felt my intelligence wasn’t a curse was when I was diagnosed as diabetic and had to sift through the mounds of outdated misinformation to find what works for me.

  • Elizabeth Rubenstein

    metacognition and self-awareness are essential skills to teach all students !

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  • Tali

    Although there might be merit in telling struggling kids that they are just as capable as the kids for whom things are easy, it is simply false. There are kids that everything is easy for them, no hard work involved. “Studying hard” doesn’t “make you smart”, it will at most get you a good grade on an exam. The idea that the only thing separating “geniuses” from others is the amount of effort they put into their area of expertise has been debunked (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613000421).
    And by the way, when you’re “imagining an Einstein-type genius”, please imagine a 25-year-old, because that’s about how old he was when he came up with his most revolutionary ideas.

    • jurisdictum

      The bottom line is that work-ethic is a lot more important for succeeding in life than talent. This fixation on talent is completely counter-productive in almost all situations. Ill never understand what schools think they’re accomplishing by rating and organizing kids by talent to decide who gets the chance to get a BA. Damn near anyone is capable of getting a BA, graduate degree, and good career. Telling some kids their dumb — or even just average — just encourages them to give up on academics prematurely.
      I don’t want teenagers and young adults worrying about if they’re smart enough to be a MD. I want them to think about if they’re willing to work hard enough to accomplish that. I definitely don’t want kids not paying attention in elementary school because they think its hopeless anyway.
      Making sure a vanishingly small minority of gifted children reach their full potential– really isn’t a job for our government institutions or even society at large. They do a bad job at that sort of thing anyway. It is their job to provide equal opportunity as much as possible.

      • Tali

        It is not true that “work ethic” is more important for succeeding in life – saying this implies that anybody who is not successful simply didn’t work hard enough. Talent is definitely important, but more critically, identifying one’s strengths and weaknesses. Not anybody can be an MD, this is simply a fact. But everybody (especially kids) could find something that they’re good at, and that they enjoy, and keep working at it until they become better and better. There’s a much higher payoff in that route than trying to force somebody to get better at things that are much harder for them, don’t work with their thinking style, or whatever. Measuring everybody on 1 metric of “smart” (academically) will result in some people being clearly superior on that metric, just like if you measured everybody on athleticism – sure, with practice anybody is going to get better, but some people are just naturally better at it. Pretending it isn’t so, and that “everybody is secretly the same” is just silly, and the younger kids know better than anybody that it isn’t true.
        But I agree with you that it’s not the government’s job to ensure that gifted children reach their full potential (although there is a higher payoff for something like that for progress for society at large, and it is definitely in society’s detriment if a gifted kid gets frustrated and gives up). It’s the parents’ job, to find what works best for their kids, the best path for their talents and sensibilities. Would be nice if the government provided some more options, though – that would serve kids (and society) better as well.

        • jurisdictum

          “It is not true that “work ethic” is more important for succeeding in
          life – saying this implies that anybody who is not successful simply
          didn’t work hard enough. Talent is definitely important, but more
          critically, identifying one’s strengths and weaknesses.”

          What you basically said there was p –> q = q –> p. In English, just because hard work is necessary to succeed doesn’t mean hard work is sufficient to succeed.
          That being said, I agree I stated the case poorly. “Work ethic” conjurors an image of some guy deciding to sit on a couch instead of attending college. In reality — its more like the guy went to work at a dead end job that works him (or her) to the bone everyday.
          My point wasn’t really that everyone is born exactly equal — and I really haven’t seen anyone argue that in my life. It’s that there is far less distance between people that society generally implies. Especially when you take out truly talented outliers.
          We really didn’t define “succeed.” In my mind I had the image of a person pursuing a fulfilling career that earns them at least a middle class income (a definition some might contest). In my mind — there are a lot of people that erroneously believe this to be out of reach. Around 35% (generously) of people get a bachelor in their life. Let’s face it, if mental capacity determined who graduated, at least twice as many people would have a BA or BS.
          For example, Asians as a group have at a graduation rate of 50%. Since it’s pretty well documented that Asians aren’t genetically smarter — it seems pretty stupid to argue that it’s somehow born into them.
          In addition to cultural values, family income has a huge impact on whether someone gets a college degree or not. 86% of people in the top quintile get a college degree while only 6% born into the bottom quintile obtain one.
          The KIPP charter schools boast how they increased the rate of their poor students graduating from the 6% average to about 46%. I don’t want to get into the weeds about charter schools vs public schools. My point is they cite ‘grit’ as the most important factor that determines who gets their degree, not ability. Here’s a real short video of a psychologist explaining it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H14bBuluwB8
          The history of IQ testing is linked with eugenics and social Darwinism. Historically it was used as yet another mechanism for the well-off to justify their social position. The more we learn about IQ tests, the more we learn that they measure how good people are at IQ tests and not necessarily how capable they are. To use your single athletic metric idea — that test would not tell us who the best basketball players are specifically. It might not even be able to lower the potentual candidates down very much.
          Basically, I haven’t heard a good explanation about how all this testing and comparing of very young kids benefits anyone. It seems to just encourage a kind of sociological fatalism that encourages people to give up more than anything.

          • Tali

            I’m actually in agreement with you on how testing does not benefit anyone, which is why I don’t like it when people suggest that kids should just try harder in order to succeed in those tests.

            However, I strongly disagree with you about how getting a BA should be the goal, for calling somebody “successful”. The more people get BA’s, it becomes the new standard (like a high school diploma used to be), and then workplaces start asking for an MA. It’s a treadmill, and it mostly generates debt, not success.

            Here’s an article that’s relevant to what I’m talking about: http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-140-000-a-year-welding-job-1420659586.

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Holly Korbey

Holly Korbey’s work on parenting and education has appeared in The New York Times, The Atlantic, Babble, Brain, Child Magazine, and others. She lives in Nashville with her family. Follow her on Twitter: @HKorbey

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