By Sean Coughan, BBC News

The boring university lecture is going to be the first major casualty of the rise in online learning in higher education, says Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales.

The custodian of the world’s biggest online encyclopaedia says that unless universities respond to the rising tide of online courses new major players will emerge to displace them, in the way that Microsoft arrived from nowhere alongside the personal computer.

“I think that the impact is going to be massive and transformative,” says Mr Wales, describing the importance of the MOOCs (massive open online courses) that have signed up millions of students.

“It’s also been slower than anyone would have anticipated. But I’m not a person who thinks that people will be able to just go online and get a complete education without the guidance of the teacher. That sort of simplistic model shouldn’t be our framework.”

Instead he thinks that universities need to use online technology where it really works.

And from his own experience as a student, the traditional university lecture should have been condemned decades ago and replaced with an online video recording that can be stopped and started.

Recorded lectures

“I was taking an advanced calculus class and my instructor was reputed to be a fabulous researcher, but he barely spoke English. He was a very boring and bad teacher and I was absolutely lost and in despair.

“So I went to the campus tutoring centre and they had Betamax tapes of a professor who had won teaching awards. Basically I sat with those tapes and took class there. But I still had to go to the other one and sat there and wanted to kill myself.

“I thought at that time, in the future, why wouldn’t you have the most entertaining professor, the one with the proven track record of getting knowledge into people’s heads?

“We’re still not quite there. In university you’re still likely to be in a large lecture hall with a very boring professor, and everyone knows it’s not working very well. It’s not even the best use of that professor’s time or the audience.”

Online courses provide such libraries of video lectures, supplemented with interactive information, that can be used at any time on a tablet computer or laptop.

And Mr Wales suggests the future model of higher education will be to allow students to use recordings of lectures – and to use the teaching time to discuss and develop what students have been watching.

“It seems much more effective and is the direction I think we’re going to go.”

Wikipedia itself is central to this changing landscape in which huge amounts of high-quality information are available free anywhere with an internet connection.

The sheer scale of the information and the volume of its consumption has no parallel in history. Wikipedia’s latest internet traffic is running at more than 21 billion page impressions per month.

But he says it remains uncertain whether universities will be ready to change. “There’s a certain inertia in the system.”

Adapt or die

“The really interesting challenge for big-brand universities is whether they are going to move into that space. If we thought of universities as normal businesses we would say, ‘Will they be able to adapt to the PC revolution?’ It’s that kind of question. Will Harvard or MIT, Oxford or Cambridge, be able to adapt? Or will Microsoft come out of nowhere?

“It’s going to be really fascinating to see it unfold.”

In terms of technology in education, he says we should look at how it’s being driven by interest in home schooling.

“In the US, for younger children, the home schooling movement is huge.

“There are a load of online educational resources, they’re booming. Parents are looking for the best education for their kids, they realise these tools are working. There’s a marketplace for it long before the traditional school is going to think about it.”

Mr Wales himself grew up in a small private school run by his mother and grandmother in Alabama. There were four other children in his grade.

“It was like a one-room schoolhouse, the kind of place Abe Lincoln went to school,” he says.

“Education was our life, something incredibly valued by my family.”

Developing world

An important part of Wikipedia’s future focus, he says, is going to reach the modern world’s version of isolated school houses in the developing world.

In wealthier countries there might be the luxury of a debate about whether Wikipedia is better or worse than printed encyclopaedias. But Mr Wales wants to support languages in Africa where there have never been encyclopaedias in the first place.

Wikipedia operates in 286 different languages, but the content is very unevenly spread. There are more than 4 million articles in English, while Xhosa, spoken by almost 8 million people in South Africa, only has 147 articles.

“Our role in languages of the developing world is quite different from our role in English.

“We’ve still got a long way to go. I’d say we’ve increasingly turned our focus to the languages of the developing world. It’s really of great importance. Our goal is a free encyclopaedia for everyone in their own language.”

He rejects the idea that Wikipedia’s instant knowledge represents some kind of dumbing down. It has long been accused of being the hidden hand in countless school and university assignments.

But Mr Wales says it plays a vital democratic role in allowing ordinary people to become informed in a way that would never have been possible before.

If there is a story in the news, people can find out the background for themselves. “We can see it in our traffic. There’s a massive spike.

“In some rose-coloured view of the past we all went home and read books about it. The truth is that we didn’t.

“It’s remarkable that people now have the opportunity. It’s not a Utopian state, but people have the possibility to do their own research.”

Pub quiz

Mr Wales also defends what Wikipedia represents for free speech in countries with censorship and a lack of human rights.

“The impact of the knowledge we bring is important, but what is much more deeply political is the concept of Wikipedia, that ordinary people should be able to participate in the grand human dialogue.

“It’s a very subversive idea in a society that is top-down and ‘do as your masters tell you,'” he says.

The online encyclopaedia is now 12 years old, launched in the same month as iTunes and when Greece adopted the euro. It has grown to 26 million articles and has more than 500 million individual users a month.

Wikipedia’s next development will be to make it easier for a wider variety of people to write and edit articles, with an editing tool that is more user-friendly.

“For people who aren’t computer geeks, it’s intimidating. The user base of active editors tend to be computer-savvy. We want to diversify, so they can be geeks but not computer geeks.”

Of course, there’s still a big unanswered question. How would the king of Wikipedia get on in a pub quiz? Would he have to illicitly check his smartphone under the table?

“I’ve declined to go on a TV quiz show. There’s no upside for me. Unless I get every single question right I’m going to be subject to mockery. Because I’m meant to be the encyclopaedia guy.”

  • fecnde

    Oh please!

    Take a look at the completion rate of most MOOC’s

    then consider whether you would rather watch a video of a TED Talk or attend one with a live speaker. You’d rather attend? Why? It’s not as if you can interact. So why?

    Universities should take the best of the new approaches, and consider how it will enhance education. But over-investment in something that doesn’t show actual return on the investment is nuts.

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  • tecomarob

    Unfortunately not many Xhosa speakers can actually read Xhosa and anecdotal evidence suggest that most will read English and Afrikaans. But Xhosa is an amazing language so lets hope initiatves like this promote the language.

  • Curtis


    Every other industry is changing with the advent of new technologies. Higher education should be no different. Unfortunately, too many educators (and I am one) do not feel the need to change. That is because the traditional university has always had a monopoly until the internet came along. Now, they have stiff competition. So, like in any other business the name of the game is keep up or get shut out. As a veteran educator, I have had to adapt too. Such is life.


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  • Ranjot Singh
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  • pgcapt

    All this from a widely-known and highly experienced educator. Ahem.

  • MOOC buddy – Any education is lost if you don’t actively use it or refresh yourself on the material. If I was taking a MOOC I would us a screen capture app to record the lessons (or camcorder the screen) then use my app to add Notes to the various segments. Then have that play back randomly as a screen saver. This way the knowledge becomes mine. Web sites aren’t forever neither is knowledge but with this simple app it is….

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDpsv_mgK5A this one shows how to skin a marten

    The personalised learning solution – learning for a lifetime

    Most adults will freely admit they remember little from their formal education.

    The same applies for all unused knowledge; business or otherwise. This personalised learning method changes that.

    You’ll have peace of mind; when all important MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) video lessons are playing as a (muted?) screen saver, that knowledge truly becomes yours.

    For Personalised e-learning:
    Random and Searched playback of GROUPED Large font text (48point) with the associated video segments and or pictures. This app runs from a USB stick or DVD so sharing and copying is easy. When you have your important lessions played back randomly in a question answer format; knowledge is reinforced.

    Random makes learning and relearning FUN. No scorecard and associated disappointments.
    Just google: “e-learning is boring”

    Other features for search and display / play; make this a well rounded Learning Management System.

    Most Recent application (Digital Signage)
    A video store wants to display Movie trailer segments mixed in with local sports, entertainment along with realestate and for sale ads

    The play list is 30 groups of (text video and pictures) which run 24X7 in the storefront window. Every 5th item is a random selection from their movie trailer (15 seconds). Every 3rd one is a random sporting event; in this case a local drag race (over 100 runs). Included is the display of the time and less frequently the Day / Month.

    The initial 30 is a mixture of Weather forecasts, upcoming events and cars for sale and realestate ads. The other non marketing events includes a local street dance, a retardant bomber fighting a fire, local tourist site segments, horoscopes etc.

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