During the time Army Captain Charles Gail wandered Okinawa with his box camera in 1952, his intention was artistic. But his slice-of-life photos — along with his detailed notes about each scene — serve as precious documentation of a way of life that’s gone now.


So when UC Santa Cruz was offered a trove of photos that Gail took while stationed on Okinawa, History Professor Alan Christy jumped on it. Then, he took 15 students on a couple of international field trips to the island, to research and write history themselves.

“By working with me on the research,” he says, “they’ll learn how history is done.”

Much of Okinawa’s historical record destroyed

The epic battle on Okinawa, depicted in this 1945 newsreel, was devastating. About 90,000 soldiers were killed on both sides. More than 110,000 Okinawans died.


After World War II, the US military moved in and established several bases, whether the Okinawans wanted them or not. Civilian photography was restricted. Christy explains, “WWII in Okinawa was immensely destructive of the heritage landscape: archives, images, not to mention, of course, people.”

As part of Christy’s project, UC Santa Cruz students were asked to seek out the exact places where Gail shot his photos, and found some of the people he photographed are still alive, or at least remembered by people alive today.

“Crowds would gather around the photo — all the old folk, particularly, because these are photos from 70 years ago — and argue about where this photo was or wasn’t,” Christy says.

Charles Gail wrote notes on the back of his photographs, like the one at the top of this article: "This is a seed store. The old gent has made himself a pair of bifocals by taping two pairs of glasses together...You will notice he smokes Camel cigarettes with an ivory holder, and the dragon ash tray is Okinawan pottery."
Charles Gail wrote notes on the back of his photographs, like the one at the top of this article: “This is a seed store. The old gent has made himself a pair of bifocals by taping two pairs of glasses together…You will notice he smokes Camel cigarettes with an ivory holder, and the dragon ash tray is Okinawan pottery.”

“‘Ah, I remember those people, the people were were selling fish like that.’ You’d just get these great conversations and sit there and soak it in,” Christy says.

Gail focused his camera on long-suffering peasants carrying goods to market, fishermen hauling their catch onto the beach, and adorable children everywhere.

Now, a selection of his photos, as well as photos shot by students in the same locations, are on display at the Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery at UC Santa Cruz.

Detail of photo by Charles Eugene Gail; c. 1952. Some of the little children are now elders on Okinawa.
Detail of photo by Charles Eugene Gail; c. 1952. Some of the little children are now elders on Okinawa.

‘The Gail Project: An Okinawan-American Dialogue,’ which includes 50 digital prints reprinted from the original 200 black and white photos, is being developed into a traveling exhibition.

The current exhibit also includes an online archive, with oral histories from Americans and Okinawans, as well as undergraduate research and writing.

No “us” and “them” when the subjects are your relatives

Among the student historians: Alexyss “Lex” McClellan, who’s majoring in history and critical race and ethnic studies. McClellan is also part Okinawan.

“Most of my family’s worldly possessions were destroyed during the battle, so photos are rare,” McClellan says. Her grandmother married an American serviceman and moved to San Diego.

Locating the exact spots where Charles Gail shot his photos in 1952 was no small feat. Take this shot of the Katsuren Peninsula, that now features a bridge. Supportive Okinawans helped the student historians from UC Santa Cruz figure out where to go.
Locating the exact spots where Charles Gail shot his photos in 1952 was no small feat. Take this shot of the Katsuren Peninsula, that now features a bridge. Supportive Okinawans helped the student historians from UC Santa Cruz figure out where to go.

“This project has been a blessing to me because it’s given me an opportunity — to talk to my grandmother, her sisters, her brother and the rest of my family on a level they empathize deeply with — and so for them to tell stories that I had never heard growing up,” McClellan says.

McClellan and her family are also enjoying an upwelling of pride at the attention UC Santa Cruz is paying to Okinawan culture. Outside of Japan, many people are not aware the islanders don’t consider themselves Japanese. Their neighbors to the north only took over Okinawa in 1609.

Okinawans speak different languages. Or rather, they did. After years of Japanese and American occupation, less than 10,000 people now speak some form of Okinawan. It’s just another way a distinctive indigenous culture fades into history.

McLellan says Gail wasn’t thinking about history when he took his photographs. “He was just taking pictures he thought other Americans might find anomalous or interesting. But to us, these are a gold mine.”

Detail of "Tattoos," by Charles Eugene Gail; c. 1952. "Notice tattoos on her wrist, an old marrying custom," Gail wrote on the back. Old indeed. Japan banned the practice of hachiji in the late 19th century as part of an effort to suppress local customs. Women like this one were some of the last to wear these indigo tattoos for decades. The practice is now enjoying a resurgence on Okinawa.
Detail of “Tattoos,” by Charles Eugene Gail; c. 1952. “Notice tattoos on her wrist, an old marrying custom,” Gail wrote on the back. Old indeed. Japan banned the practice of hachiji in the late 19th century as part of an effort to suppress local customs. Women like this one were some of the last to wear these indigo tattoos for decades. The practice is now enjoying a resurgence on Okinawa.

For Geri Gail, a former employee of UC Santa Cruz who always knew her dad was a talent, it’s a thrill to see his pictures archived in excellent company alongside prominent 20th century photographers in the university’s growing collection.

“It just gives me goose bumps. I’m so proud,” she says, looking at her father’s photos up on the wall at the Sesnon Gallery.

‘The Gail Project: An Okinawan-American Dialogue’ is on view at the The Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery through Dec. 2, 2017. For more information, click here.

Students Help Okinawan History Come Alive in UC Santa Cruz Exhibit 17 November,2017Rachael Myrow

Author

Rachael Myrow

Rachael Myrow is KQED’s Silicon Valley Arts Reporter, covering arts, culture and technology in San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties. She regularly files stories for NPR and the KQED podcast Bay Curious, and guest hosts KQED’s Forum.

Her passion for public radio was born as an undergrad at the University of California at Berkeley, writing movie reviews for KALX-FM. After finishing one degree in English, she got another in journalism, landed a job at Marketplace in Los Angeles, and another at KPCC, before returning to the Bay Area to work at KQED.

She spent more than seven years hosting The California Report, and over the years has won a Peabody and three Edward R. Murrow Awards (one for covering the MTA Strike, her first assignment as a full-time reporter in 2000 as well as numerous other honors including from the Society of Professional Journalists, the Radio Television News Directors Association and the LA Press Club.
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