In his new book, “How We Learn: The Surprising Truth about When, Where, and Why It Happens,” author Benedict Carey informs us that “most of our instincts about learning are misplaced, incomplete, or flat wrong” and “rooted more in superstition than in science.”

That’s a disconcerting message, and hard to believe at first. But it’s also unexpectedly liberating, because Carey further explains that many things we think of as detractors from learning — like forgetting, distractions, interruptions or sleeping rather than hitting the books — aren’t necessarily bad after all. They can actually work in your favor, according to a body of research that offers surprising insights and simple, doable strategies for learning more effectively.

Society has ingrained in us “a monkish conception of what learning is, of you sitting with your books in your cell,” Carey told MindShift. It’s a ritual of self-discipline, isolation and blocks of repetitive practice, whether in math, vocabulary, piano or tennis. But that traditional ideal has psychological downsides. Often, “you feel like you haven’t done it right or you haven’t done enough of it,” he said. “It causes a lot of anxiety because of what we think we should be doing.” For many students, learning has become a high-stress burden.

“How We Learn” presents a new view that takes some of the pressure off. As a veteran science reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, Carey has covered cognitive science, psychology and psychiatry for 20 years. (Disclosure: I’ve known Carey since we both worked at Time Inc. Health in the ’90s.) Combing through decades of cognitive science investigations of memory and learning, he has pulled together its best lessons into a practical and engaging guide.

He lays out a variety of counterintuitive techniques that can aid and deepen learning, sprinkles in some illustrative memory exercises and puzzles, and weaves in his own painful experiences as a restless and anxious — yet dutiful and hardworking — student who initially failed to get into college. All in all, Carey vividly shows readers how learning can be less of a chore and more a way of living that lets new information and skills “seep under our skin.”

Getting to Know Your Brain’s Memory Processes

In an interview, he highlighted three take-home messages from his book:

Forgetting isn’t always bad. Most of the time, it’s natural and essential to remembering and learning. According to a theory championed by Robert Bjork and Elizabeth Ligon Bjork at UCLA, forgetting serves as a powerful spam filter: Whenever you’re trying to recall a word or fact, your brain has to actively suppress, or forget, competing information. What’s more, the way memories tend to fade over time actually aids subsequent learning. Under a principle the Bjorks call desirable difficulty, when the brain has to work hard to retrieve a half-forgotten memory (such as when reviewing new vocabulary words you learned the day before), it re-doubles the strength of that memory.

If you sit down to study a load of material, “of course you’re not going to remember most of it the next day,” Carey said. You do have to go back and build your knowledge. “But it’s not that you don’t remember well, or you’re not a good learner. It’s that forgetting is a critical part of learning.”

The brain is a foraging learner. For our ancient hominid ancestors, remembering how and where to hunt prey or find shelter was crucial to survival. The human brain evolved to pick up valuable pieces of information here and there, on the fly, all the time, and put it all together, he said. It still does that — absorbing cues from daily life, overheard conversations, its own internal musings. It keeps things in mind that are important to you (an unfinished project, for instance) and adds to your thoughts about them by subconsciously tuning in to any relevant information you see or hear around you. By foraging in this way, the brain is “building knowledge continually, and it’s not only during study or practice,” Carey said. And we’re not even completely aware of that.

We can be tactical in our schooling. The traditional advice on learning has been to “study hard,” in a quiet place and with the same routine, yet that doesn’t say much about what to specifically do. But pupils today can change the way they study to exploit the brain’s quirky learning processes, using the strategies revealed by memory and learning research. While that science is still maturing, “it’s at a place now where it can give you a specific tactical plan,” Carey said. Students can tailor their preparation with techniques targeting different kinds of content or skills, and manage their schedule to optimize their time. “That’s a powerful thing, because we go through our whole lives never knowing that,” he said.

how-we-learnFor example:

— Breaking up and spacing out study time over days or weeks can substantially boost how much of the material students retain, and for longer, compared to lumping everything into a single, nose-to-the-grindstone session.

— Varying the studying environment — by hitting the books in, say, a cafe or garden rather than only hunkering down in the library, or even by listening to different background music — can help reinforce and sharpen the memory of what you learn.

— A 15-minute break to go for a walk or trawl on social media isn’t necessarily wasteful procrastination. Distractions and interruptions can allow for mental “incubation” and flashes of insight — but only if you’ve been working at a problem for a while and get stuck, according to a 2009 research meta-analysis.

— Quizzing oneself on new material, such as by reciting it aloud from memory or trying to tell a friend about it, is a far more powerful way to master information than just re-reading it, according to work by researchers including Henry Roediger III and Jeffrey Karpicke. (Roediger has co-authored his own book, “Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning.”)

Experimenting With Learning Tactics

Anybody can try these methods to see what works best, Carey said. For instance, to prepare for a Spanish test that’s one week away, students could plan to study an hour today, an hour tomorrow — and then self-test themselves next week right before the exam, he said. The book also explores the benefits of sleep (which improves retention and comprehension of what you learn), perceptual learning modules and mixing up different kinds of related problems or skills in practice sessions instead of repetitively rehearsing just one skill at a time.

Carey thinks the science-based learning strategies should explicitly be taught to all students early on, as part of the school curriculum. But kids shouldn’t use them “as an excuse to do nothing,” he added. The message isn’t that they can spend every second glued to their cellphones and still be learning. “You have to be motivated and pay attention and so on.”

Unfortunately, most people, educators included, are unaware of the lessons from the science of learning, Carey said. Education and cognitive science are largely separate worlds that have begun communicating only in the last decade, partly because “teachers see all sorts of reforms come and go, and they’re skeptical — and rightly so — of anyone who comes in and says, “Well, I’m going to tell you how to make the kids learn better,” he said. But some individual teachers who have followed the research may be applying certain strategies in the classroom, he said, such as assigning mixed-up math problem sets.

Knowing the basics of how the brain actually learns can offer breathing room from societal expectations about “good” academic habits. A fidgety teenager who has trouble concentrating and forgets her physics formulas might think, “I’m no good at this” or “I’m not so smart, and maybe it’s not worthwhile for me to pursue this,” Carey said. But that’s not necessarily true, according to the cognitive research. Students need to understand that learning happens not only during reading and studying, but in all sorts of ways, so that they can examine their own habits to know which ones may be helping or not, and make adjustments, he said. Only then can they evaluate whether they’re good at something.

Surviving the Modern Jungle

Ultimately, the value of these learning strategies isn’t just about earning better grades, Carey said. In the modern jungle of society, learning is still about surviving: For young people, it’s about sussing out what they’re good at, what rings their bell, and what they want to do with their lives. “It’s informing you of: Who am I? Where do I place my bets? Do I major in physics or do I major in architecture or design, or do I major in English? Do I belong here at all?” Carey said. Those are important decisions. “Being self-aware about what’s effective learning and how it happens, I think, gives you a real edge in making those choices.”

Carey has fully incorporated the learning techniques into his own life — whether in practicing guitar or getting up to speed on the latest neuroscience research to write a newspaper story. For example, when reading a difficult scientific journal article, “I realize I’m not going to understand a bunch of the stuff right away, no matter how hard I try or concentrate. I don’t let that slow me down.” He runs through it a few times, puts it aside and, spacing out his learning, tries again later, when the material almost always begins to gel.

Deadline pressure often forces him to start writing his article before he even has all the pieces, which is an “extremely valuable way to efficiently pick up the knowledge,” he said. “In effect, you’re testing yourself on how much you know… and you’re trying to write it clearly so you’re sort of teaching it, too. Those are two very effective study techniques.”

He wishes he’d known these learning secrets years ago, when he was in school. “I know for sure it would’ve taken so much of the anxiety and dread out of preparation and study and learning,” Carey said.

How Does the Brain Learn Best? Smart Studying Strategies 25 August,2014Ingfei Chen

  • Barry Kort

    See also Cognition, Affect, and Learning for more on the science of metacognition.

  • Fantastic article! I absolutely agree that being self-aware makes a big difference in how we view ourselves and our abilities.

  • Fantastic article! I absolutely agree that being self-aware makes a big difference in how we view ourselves and our abilities.

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  • Brad Arnold

    It is too bad that nobody yet (according to my research and searches) has put together a “learning program” that takes selected content and presents it in an optimum way to the student. BTW, I am well aware that “optimum” means interaction, feedback, and metrics to better the computer presentation. I have such a program in mind, but have to yet learn JAVA, as I keep getting sidetracked by interesting media (including this article I might add).

    • David Max

      Decades ago, B. F. Skinner married the operant learning technique of behavior shaping with the primitive teaching machines of Presey to create a real teaching machine. Since then, programmed instruction has been applied to many different topics and in different media (e.g., books, computer programs, etc). Direct Instruction (DI) consists of scripts (programs) in which various topics (e.g., reading, math, science, logical, critical thinking) are broken down into their component skills and taught, using exemplars and non-exemplars, in a high-rate, interactive manner.

      • Bruce Howlett

        Behavioral psychology ignores so much about learning. Children are explores, embodied learners. They develop interests, intrinsically motivated to learn, or as this article says, forage. They love to find meaning and purpose, learning effortlessly through storytelling and open-minded conversations. Much of learning happens on a subconscious level, including the construction of meaning. They are social and emotional situational learners. Finally, few believe that children learn about themselves, develop self awareness by behavioral conditioning.

        • David Max

          I’m sorry, but what are your qualifications?

      • Maritess Simmons

        Wondering what today’s students would say about how effective you are as a “teacher” and getting them ready for today’s real world. Kids aren’t moldable widgets on an assembly line. It takes a lot more than that to get kids engaged these days and that’s a fact all educator needs to factor in to be truly effective. Don’t ask what my qualifications are either, because it doesn’t matter. There are a lot of highly “qualified” ignoramuses/liars out there who spew academia but lack common sense and authenticity.

      • john Diamond

        Was this an effective method for teaching B.F. Skinner’s son? How did he turn out?

        • David Max

          Skinner did not have any sons. He had two daughters, one of whom is a Ph.D. and an expert on education, and the other is a successful artist.

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  • David Max

    I applaud Mr. Carey for suggesting that teaching be based on the science of learning. But, it is not cognitive science. There is only one real science of learning, and it is called operant learning (nee operant conditioning). It is the only behavioral science based on experimental analysis of the individual; and it has been demonstrated with a wide range of organisms from insects to humans where it is most relevant. Unlike so-called cognitive science, operant learning is consistent with both neuroscience and evolutionary biology. Thus, all of the most effective teaching strategies are based in some way on operant learning principles, including Direct Instruction, Programmed Learning, and Applied Behavior Analysis. Unfortunately, most cognitive research is not truly experimental. And, while Carey’s suggestions might be helpful for some people some of the time, it is not for the reasons he suggests. Oh, and one more thing: the brain doesn’t learn; individuals do; and learning is not measured by changes in the brain–although they surely happen when learning occurs–but by relatively permanent changes in behavior. For an easy-to-read and accessible book on the real learning science, see Susan Schneider’s book, The Science of Consequences.

    • Logan

      Wow, what a narrow (and outdated) view of learning. Operant conditioning is fine for memorizing basic facts and associations (e.g., times tables, foreign language vocabulary); however, there is a qualitatively different type of learning that is much more relevant for education–learning for understanding (granted, the current article does not make this distinction and the study strategies it reports are mainly discussed in the context of memorizing). Learning for understanding involves actively interpreting incoming information by building connections between the different elements of information and integrating it with existing knowledge. It goes beyond simply being able to reproduce a correct response to a given stimulus–it involves being able to apply your knowledge to new situations (transfer). You write, “most cognitive science research is not truly experimental”–not sure what you mean by that. Perhaps you haven’t read a scientific article in psychology since 1950. Sorry to disappoint you, but behaviorism is not quite able to explain all of human behavior.

      • David Max

        I’m sorry, but what are your qualifications on this matter?

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  • Victoria Haliburton

    Most these techniques are far from new and several are hundreds of years old. A lot are in the category of “my grandmother could have told you that.” Mixed-up math problem sets go back hundreds of years and more; it was the “modernization” of the 1960’s along with programmed learning that brought in those horrendous (and mostly useless) pages and pages of identical problems. The idea of spaced practice is the root of our traditional school schedule, doing a bit of each subject for an hour each day in order to aid deep comprehension and retention, rather than studying each topic for a few weeks and then dropping it — this idea of intensive learning on one topic at a time is popular with administrators but serious teachers avoid it, and this battle is rejoined every year in the name of “efficiency”. The idea of learning in bits and pieces and synthesizing slowly — or as one of my math professors put it, learning by successive approximations — is also part of the traditional method, hundreds of years old. This is one reason that you have a large cumulative exam at the end of a course, rather than testing and marking every single thing every day. Continual grading and testing is well-known as a source of intense anxiety and stress but it is very popular among American teachers who see it as a method of control. Schools in other countries that have much much better final results do far less testing. most often one or two comprehensive exams.The idea of self-questioning is at the rot of our entire education system, from reading strategies to analysis of history to developing math profs; it is again the “modern” and programmed learning ideas of the 1960’s that brought in the don’t ask questions just memorize and imitate approaches, which are known to be disasters.

    • Marcos Ávila

      They never say that these are new techniques or even newly discovered. They say that they are useful, and should be tried. Don’t be such a downer…..

      • Marcos Ávila

        It says they should be taught and learned by students – not used by teachers without student acknowledgement.

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  • MarilynBarbara

    Our brain needs the rest of you to get moving, and pump the oxygen-rich
    blood it needs through every capillary. Studies show that exercise
    improves your memory capacity – and lack of it will make your brain age

    • Katrina Schwartz

      Delete, spam

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  • john Diamond

    The problem with learning today seems to be the lack of reading ability and/or comprehension. Why not focus exclusively on reading skills for the first few years and only address other subjects on the periphery? Educational results have been trending in a downward spiral since Carter created a Federal bureaucracy that took away local control from school systems and forced schools to start “Teaching to the Test” I have friends and relative, who are Teachers, and this is their number one complaint. What can we do to improve this?

    • Christy

      That’s pretty close to the way it is. 10 hours/wk of “literacy” instructions in a half-day kindergarten program? Plus a little numeracy to go with that. Doesn’t leave much room for anything else.

      • john Diamond

        Which begs the question ,then. Why can’t Johnny read? I personally feel that until a child CAN read everything else is secondary. Where did your kids go to school. I live in Central New York and grade school and Kindergarten was nothing like I suggested or close to how you say it works. I wish it did work that way in out schools. How do you feel about the role the feds play in dictating content and curriculum?

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  • Jordan

    I take a nootropic supplement and it helps my memory. Brain Supplement

    • Douglas Silva

      Placebo effect

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  • Brainslides

    “Being self-aware about what’s effective learning and how it happens, I think, gives you a real edge in making those choices.”

    I find the opposite can also be true, especially during lecture when a professor is doing the exact opposite of effective instruction. I find myself focusing more on how awful the instructor is and unable to learn the material.
    How can you get past that?

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  • Kayla Burrow

    This is exactly why programs like AVID directly teach study skills like Cornell note-taking (and studying), binder organization, and time management. Kids need to be taught these explicitly, and teachers need to know what they are, so they can share them effectively! Teachers providing think alouds for students on what helps them can also help students reflect on what works best for themselves. Great stuff here!

  • Jeff hartnett

    Does anyone know if there has been any type of study guide for standardized tests developed/published using the principles and strategies described by Mr. Carey?

    • Wendy Friendy

      Becker program for the CPA exam is a good example.

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Ingfei Chen

Ingfei Chen is a freelance writer in Northern California whose work has appeared in Scientific American, the New York Times and Smithsonian.

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