By Kathy Baron

Not too long ago, a proposal to give some Nebraska students access to a digital library of books and magazines through the school district’s website was thwarted by a district official who objected to students seeing those archetypal photos of naked breasts in National Geographic.

While that may seem quaint, a new report from the American Library Association warns it’s emblematic of an overzealous and damaging crackdown on websites by school districts that are misinterpreting the federal Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) of 2000.

“The over-filtering that occurs today affects not only what teachers can teach but also how they teach,” writes Kristen Batch in the ALA’s report Fencing Out Knowledge, which examines the impact of CIPA 10 years after it was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. It also “creates barriers to learning and acquiring digital literacy skills that are vital for college and career readiness, as well as for full participation in 21st-century society.”

Batch doesn’t doubt that districts sincerely believe they’re protecting students, but says the law is based on an outmoded version of the Internet as a passive repository of printed information in a digital format.

“The most striking change between CIPA when it was passed and CIPA today is the way we use the Internet,” Batch said. “It’s not a magazine, we’re not just consumers, we’re creators, we’re users.”

Facebook, YouTube and Twitter didn’t exist when CIPA became law, but today millions of children use them to create online personas and interact with friends, strangers, even potential future employers. On Facebook alone, the typical teen has 300 “friends,” according to a 2013 report by the Pew Research Internet Project. Yet, the most popular social media sites are also the most commonly blocked by schools.

The folly lies in the fact that most students have unfettered access to these forbidden sites through the phones in their pockets and backpacks, on their home computers and in many public libraries – often with no adult guidance. Batch says it’s a missed opportunity to teach students the critical skills they’ll need to discern the good from the bad.

“These critical thinking skills aren’t learned just by tinkering with technology, it has to be learned in context in a supportive environment,” said Batch. “Kids can learn and reflect, and it starts to shape behavior in terms of what’s appropriate on line.”

Varied Implementation

On the surface, CIPA is very clear about what schools and libraries must do to protect children from harmful material on the Internet. According to the Federal Communications Commission, which oversees compliance with the law, they must put technology protection measures in place that “block or filter Internet access to pictures that are: (a) obscene; (b) child pornography; or (c) harmful to minors.”

In practice, however, defining the three measures is up to each community, creating widely varied implementation from district to district and the sort of frustration that led U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart in the 1964 Jacobellis v. Ohio case, to exclaim about obscenity, “I know it when I see it.”

The FCC could order a district that’s out of compliance to repay tens of thousands of dollars in federal discounts to defray the cost of connecting to the Internet through the E-rate program. Although that hasn’t happened yet, the threat contributes to some districts’ attitude that it’s better to be safe than sorry.

In the same Nebraska school district that blocked National Geographic magazine, neither students in an Advanced Placement government class, nor their teacher, could access websites containing the words China, Russia or Iran, making it a challenge to work on a project that required them to compare the different types of governments in those countries.

The only people who could override the filter were in the technology department, which didn’t answer to anyone in the curriculum division, explained a former school staff member, who didn’t want her name used, and their answer to any requests was usually no. This was especially troubling when, in the wake of an attempted suicide, a school counselor wasn’t able to download information on suicide for students who came to her for help.

When she asked the tech department to unblock the site, she was rebuffed. “Their view was that if the filter is blocking it, there’s no reason for you to see it,” the former staff member said.

The Nebraska district is in the midst of a sweeping philosophical and practical turnaround in filtering thanks to a newly elected – and much younger – school board, a new tech director and a new superintendent.

But the former staff member still wonders how the old policy impacted other students facing life-altering crises who hit a firewall while searching online for answers. How many dropped out of school or chose other risky behaviors because they couldn’t find any other options.

“I have to assume that that happened,” she said.

Filtering Out Equality

In their nascent days, filters were blunt instruments that worked by blocking any URL or website containing certain keywords: sex, drugs, guns. That’s still the gist of the operating system, but tech advances enable districts to be more nuanced about what gets blocked and for whom, and they’re taking advantage of that flexibility.

Between 2010 and 2013, the number of teachers who said Internet blocking was an obstacle in their classrooms fell from 45 to 32 percent, according to surveys by the nonprofit education group, Project Tomorrow.

When John Krull took over as Internet technology officer in Oakland Unified School District last summer, he said teachers’ biggest complaints were about not having access to the websites they needed. Because the district has a sophisticated filter, Krull implemented a teacher login system that lets staff override some blocked sites. He’s working on a similar system for students that would grant varying degrees of access depending on grade level.

But a more troubling concern raised in the ALA report is over unequal Internet access based on economic levels. Over-filtering in schools is creating two classes of students, Batch argues, by putting low-income students at an educational disadvantage because they’re less likely to have Internet access at home.

“That’s really the gap; that students that have their own Internet connections at home have exposure, but those students who rely on Internet access at school, they are not getting access to the same sites that they should be,” said Batch.

In a survey released last year by the Pew Research Internet Project, nearly three times as many teachers of low-income students than those with middle- and high-income students said this lack of access was a “major challenge” in their ability “to incorporate more digital tools into their teaching.”

The disparities will become more problematic as school implement Common Core State Standards, which require teachers to embed technology throughout the curriculum and not treat it as a separate subject.

Under the new standards, it’s expected that students will learn to “employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and mediums and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.”

Finding the Right Balance

Complying with CIPA is a time-consuming and expensive unfunded federal mandate. Filters can cost anywhere from $3-to-$40 per student, depending on the size and needs of the district, and like any software program, they require regular updates and training to make sure everyone knows how to use them.

But eliminating filters isn’t the answer to debugging the problems with CIPA. For starters, there is no movement afoot to change law, let alone overturn it, according to FCC officials.

What’s more, even people who believe in full access to the Internet agree that there have to be protections in place for children.

“There’s not a right or wrong; it’s a lot about community values and it’s a tough thing because the Internet can be a dangerous place,” said Denise Atkinson-Shorey, an IT consultant and former librarian.

Wearing just her hat as an IT consultant, Atkinson-Shorey would rather that districts didn’t have to deal with the expense and bother of filters and could put that money and time into resources to directly improve education. Since that’s not going to happen anytime soon, she says there should be an ongoing conversation to review the impact of CIPA.

The need to improve communication about the issues that CIPA addresses is the “overarching” outcome of the ALA report. Once teachers, parents, administrators and students start talking about the good and bad consequences of the law, the hope is they can begin to develop some guidelines and resources for school districts and communities.

“It’s not if you have a filter or not, it’s really about to what degree do you filter, how do you filter?” said Atkinson-Shorey.

What’s the Impact of Overzealous Internet Filtering in Schools? 26 June,2014MindShift

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  • Great article, we are always inundated by students and teachers who cant confirm their registration to our website due to overly strict controls. www,examtime.com allows teachers and students to collaborate together online and share notes and study aids, you would think this is something that most schools would encourage… Censorship is important but there needs to be a more balanced approach. Great article, thanks for sharing.

  • Mr. Mo

    It departments work for teachers, not the other way around

  • Thinking Skills Club

    Thanks for posting. I run a website of cognitively enriching games I have sourced from free online gaming sites in the interest of making ‘brain games’ more widely accessible and more fun. Some teachers in Palm Beach wanted to use it but the District shut them down. Hope it doesn’t take too long for the situation to change.

  • GrannieTech

    Great post and very to the point. In my experience, I have found that the only people blocked are teachers as students have become expert at getting around the blocks. I keep saying over and over, whether it is on computers, phones, etc., that the answer is to learn when and what is appropriate.

  • John

    Draconian filtering practices are promoted by an an industry hawking turn-key solutions.

  • Andrew Walls

    This is a great article and it is precisely in line with what I argued on my blog just recently. It’s also in line with a lecture I attended at the Frog Conference (2014) in the UK only last week. I think that there’s a clear consensus that we have to move in this direction,

  • TechPointOfView

    From the IT Dept’s perspective…If you allow YouTube for students, there goes your bandwidth not to mention productivity. Allow FB and Twitter and you bring the negative aspects (bullying) to your school day (along with decreased productivity). Teachers always ask us to block the “unproductive” websites, ie., games, videos, etc., instead of managing their classrooms themselves! Plus, they aren’t using social media in their curriculum so blocked they will stay!!!

    • Marc

      Youtube has so many valuable videos that support learning though. And I’ve seen classrooms where they Skype with another place (for example, a French class that Skyped with a classroom in France). Where I went to school, they’ve now somehow found a way to integrate Facebook into education and learning too, which I actually think is pretty cool. It takes “learning” outside of the box of “school” and brings it into “real life”.

  • Rae

    Very interesting post, but, as a classroom teacher who loves technology, many times technology can be more of a hindrance than helpful. The distracted student(s) slows the learning process for the entire class- especially in districts with completely inadequate technology policies. And now, reputable studies are now coming out showing how authentic, physical learning trumps virtual. Example: http://www.nj.com/mercer/index.ssf/2014/06/princeton_university_study_finds_students_more_likely_to_learn_by_taking_handwritten_notes.html

    I don’t care whether there are Internet filters or not, I agree with the other posters that many times the teacher is the one who’s truly penalized by filters, but overall we need to use smart and strategic uses of technology as opposed to a blind eye, wild-west approach to make sure our students are focused on authentic learning.

    • Rae

      Yes, this happened when my former district distributed iPads to students with no limits AND no recourse. Students would watch Netflix or YouTube in class and the administration would not discipline the students AND we weren’t allowed to take the iPad away from the student. It was, and still is, as I understand it, a nightmare.

      • Marc

        That’s interesting, where I went to high school their policy is essentially that students can use their phones and ipads and such any time they want during school. And they haven’t had any real problem with it. The philosophy ingrained in the school culture is “We trust you”, and it gives the students a lot of responsibility, which they use well. The devices are be used to supplement the classroom activities as a learning tool, and to socialize in between classes or during free time. I suppose it really depends on the general culture of the town and school.

  • Chilly8

    Well, a teach saavy could circumvent that, by having a proxy on his or her home computer, running on a non-standard port, so their activitiy cannot be detected.

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  • tommypez

    GoGuardian’s web filter for administrators provides highly customizable, granular control over what is filtered and what isn’t, and allows teachers and counselors to get involved if any potentially hazardous activity is alerted. Goal should be to make the Internet as big as possible but as safe as necessary so as not to inhibit learning.

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