By Cevin Soling

How do we promote creativity in schools? This is one of the prevailing concerns of many progressive education reformers. From a long-term fiscal perspective, creativity can lead to innovation, and for the U.S. to have a competitive edge in the global economy, minds capable of identifying problems and imagining new possibilities are a necessity. At the same time, we sense that there’s something ethically wrong with suppressing creativity in children. The correlation between creativity and self-actualization seems implicit. Presumably, children’s aspirations include a meaningful personal engagement with whatever it is they want to achieve.

Creativity can be broadly defined as the phenomenon of developing new processes, constructs, or ideas. But can creativity be measured? Just as with measuring intelligence, the challenge of measuring creativity is complicated by lots of different factors, including the current temperament on any given day of the child whose creativity is being measured. That’s why it’s important to understand how data is used in tests that are designed to quantify creativity as a single number. Measuring creativity typically involves evaluating the quantity and originality of responses to prompts that do not demand a specific answer. For instance, a child could be asked to come up with as many original or unusual functions as he can conceive for a toy airplane, or ways he would want to alter it to make it more fun.

With regards to research involving creativity and children, two recent studies are of particular note. One study reveals that since 1990, Torrance test scores, which are designed to measure six components of creative thinking, have marginally declined each year. This test measures the quantity, originality, intensity, and degree of detail of novel ideas, as well as the individual’s capacity to consider a range of possible solutions. And when output requires a title, the title’s degree of novelty is evaluated.

While this research broadly examines a trend in American culture, another study investigated specific individuals over time and revealed that self-reported conceptions of creativity markedly decline after second grade. Whereas 95 percent of second-graders self-reported being creative, only 5 percent of high school seniors believe they are creative.

The most readily apparent inference to be drawn is the significant role that schools play in this reported decline. The hows and whys are evident. Creativity is based on thinking unconventionally, having time to daydream or simply reflect, understanding that there is no single right answer, and appreciating and valuing failure. All of these experiences run counter to what’s measured, and thus valued, in the public school system. This conflict is precisely what reformers seek to resolve, although the strategies have been somewhat vague.

Because schools must work with large numbers of students, they’re perpetually bound by the limitations of bureaucratic efficiency. Discipline, order, and obedience must be maintained, and while the degree of enforcement varies among schools, this level of order defines the institution. Curricula may have dramatically changed since the inception of compulsory schooling, but the autocratic design remains unchanged.

Because of the emphasis on maintaining order in a compulsory school environment, teachers are compelled to adopt policies that adhere to the rigid requirements of the institution. And in turn, students who embrace conformity and deference to authority are better-suited in these environments. For teachers to engage with an entire classroom of students, everyone must be acquiescent. The inevitable outcome, as studies consistently show, is a widespread aversion to traits associated with creativity in the public school environment.

Even more disturbing is that characteristics associated with creativity, such as being impulsive and taking risks, are closely aligned with what the American Psychiatric Association considers to be symptoms of ADHD. In the school environment, creativity can be considered pathological behavior as opposed to the compliant traits of being reliable, sincere, good-natured, responsible, tolerant, and peaceable — the qualities associated with the lowest levels of creativity. Further discordance between school structure and creative displays is revealed by the finding that creative students tend to cheat more than their less creative classmates.


Promoting creativity would require an entirely new conception of public schooling. Teachers would have to be transformed into mentors whose mission would be to support the individual interests of each child and introduce them to new ideas and possibilities, which the student may or may not opt to embrace. Traditional testing would have to be eliminated — tests implicitly teach that failure is bad and that there is only one right answer. Creative learning would be more effectively promoted by having students actively engage in their creative pursuits as opposed to being confined to a classroom.

It’s worth noting that learning environments with these features already exist. For example, democratic schools such as Sudbury Valley and Summerhill provide environments where students are responsible for deciding what and how they learn, who they associate with, and what activities they want to pursue. The staff acts as mentors to support students as opposed to directing their thoughts and behavior. Roughly thirty democratic schools exist in the U.S. and while this may not be appropriate for every child, studies have shown that this climate promotes creative traits.

Given these circumstances, the idea of teaching creativity in an environment that requires assessment, evaluation, and grading seems unlikely, if not impossible. Even where opportunities to show creativity might be devised, students may be inclined to self-censoring: A student who wants a good grade may not feel completely free to produce something that might be offensive.

So what’s the result? Creativity scores decline, and school administrators wonder why their efforts towards boosting creativity have failed. What’s more, the paradox of expecting students to exhibit creativity in an environment that suppresses such displays becomes a breeding ground for neurotic children.

Barring a much-needed reinvention of the education system, there are steps that can be taken to promote creativity within the existing paradigm. Teachers can learn to recognize and respect that the child who cannot cope with the classroom environment might not be belligerent or have a mental disorder, but rather may simply have a creative disposition. Educators can also explain honestly to their students that the work they’re doing in school may not foster creativity, but that they do believe in every students’ innate capacity to be truly creative.

That kind of honesty will go a long way in enabling students to appreciate their innate creativity and provide them with greater fortitude and resources when engaging in creative pursuits outside of school.

Cevin Soling is the director of the documentary The War on Kids.


Can Any School Foster Pure Creativity? 17 March,2014MindShift

  • Jon

    Definitely an excellent starting question, Cevin. And this line of thinking leads to so many other questions! How does one ‘measure’ creativity? Is school the only learning environment where we’re asking kids to be creative? How can educators support creativity while still answering to systems that value standardized assessment? etc.

    If we envision a near-future scenario where schools have the freedom to encourage and support creativity in students, how did they get there? Was it a huge top-down shift from admins who said ‘to hell with testing’? Or did it take more of a grassroots movement from educators who didn’t ask permission to break from tradition?

  • Ed watcher

    Schools could strive to move closer toward student-driven learning. Not the free school model, because its strength may well be its weakness too; students who have full control over their learning can only work with what they have. But what about a model where the curriculum and operational setup gives students more to work with, along with more degrees of freedom with which to implement it? The school where i work is doing this successfully (Queens Paideia School in NYC), but it requires more teachers, better ratio, and a departure from the more conventional ways of thinking about success. Without that shift, we’re just going to see more variations on the same theme–test scores.

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  • Nicole Cardoza

    Although schools themselves might not be structured to provide creative growth, we can leverage before and afterschool time to bring creativity-building activities into the educational environment! yogafoster.org

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  • Jason

    It is hard to talk about creativity in education, especially in institutions of higher learning. Teachers feel the burden of covering an extensive body of content that their college or university expects to be delivered. Other than the pervasive use of technology, which does not necessarily bring innovation in pedagogy, it seems to me that little has changed in higher education in the last century. All over the planet, bureaucrats are obsessed with the use of standardized exams because they are seen as an efficient and time-controlled tool to fulfill the requirements of accountability throughout the whole educational system. But how can the philosophy of teaching include creativity, in concrete terms, in a system in which teachers rarely have freedom to explore innovations?

    Despite my being an exemplary student, frustration and dissatisfaction were pervasive during my school years. It was impossible for me to understand how school could be so mind numbing while dealing with such fascinating topics in all fields of knowledge. Dogmatism, rote memorization, and mechanically solving problems were commonplace in the way I was taught. The majority of my teachers managed to efficiently kill the joy of learning with boring and uncreative teaching strategies and predictable and pointless assessments. Because of my unfulfilling experience as a science student, finding creative alternatives to traditional assessments has been a topic of great interest to me.

    I have been developing The Art & Science Project (www.artandchemistry.ca) in which college students use visual arts to portray scientific concepts. To continue this task, I would like to interact with teachers from other disciplines at any level. I truly believe that creativity is the key feature for a meaningful transformation in pedagogy in the 21st century.

    • Lisa Yokana

      I would be very interested in being in touch with you. I am an art and architecture teacher who works across disciplines writing creative assessments and curriculum. I am also an artist and a bit of a science geek! I know that the two fit together and have been using the arts to teach science at the high school level. Please get in touch!

      • And I’d be interested to be in touch with you, sounds like you have some great projects on the go.
        Twitter: sch_createthink

      • lbam723

        By not having benchmark and standardized testing, you have more freedoms that other teachers don’t. Be on the outlook though, Lisa. Schools are implementing standardization in the areas of art too.

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  • Cory Wright

    Cevin, well done highlighting many if the key friction points between our educational system and creativity. As a recent Oxford study points out, 45% of US jobs are in danger of being computerized over the next 20 years and its our creativity that will keep us employed. So it’s imperative that we make progress on this dilemma. While our race for higher standards is pushing the knowledge needle it’s shrinking the applied imagination. However this is a Yes AND situation. We need Knowledge and Imagination in addition to Attitude and Judgement. When these 4 components are high and in harmony creativity flourishes. I’m good with the common core standards but highly against the high stakes nature, both with grades and teacher performance. Drop the high stakes push and you will see schools adopt authentic project based methodologies quickly. Creativity, engagement, knowledge will all rise. This is apart of my mission.

  • wanderingalan

    why not focus on the teaching of CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES instead of CREATIViTY?

    • Hi Alan…I couldn’t agree more! It’s exactly what I do. My goal is to get agencies running in schools so that students can get in touch with local clients. I run workshops and provide curriculum material that focuses on creative thinking skills, all with paper and pens. Keep it organic and then the tech comes later! If you would like to stay in touch, I’m on twitter and here http://www.theschoolofcreativethinking.com

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  • “All of these experiences run counter to what’s measured, and thus valued, in the public school system. This conflict is precisely what reformers seek to resolve, although the strategies have been somewhat vague.” I truly hope this is in fact resolvable. I am a creative drama teacher in a very academic elementary school and have been for the past 20 years. We play, tell stories in countless ways, sing, dance, create scripts, enact characters, describe characters, imagine characters, and play some more over and over all in a very encouraging, affirming, and supportive environment. It builds confidence, cooperative skills, and imaginative awareness. I wish that these things valued by my school were things all students in every school had an opportunity to explore and enjoy.

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  • Derek Sheppard

    Yes, creativity flourishes in democratic, natural learning environments, that is democratic schools, around the world. Check out the Sudbury Valley School in Framingham, MA, and its sister schools, for a start. Creativity has been alive from the day the school opened over 45 years ago.

    • Exactly Derek, schools are doing it, the issue is that the mainstream seem to ignore these models or label them as alternative and obscure. People scoff at Summerhill School in the UK for some strange reason, but it works. Intrinsic motivation, autonomy, space and time. If only they would see that sitting kids in a room for 55 minute blocks for surface learning exam cram which are then jolted to an end with bells are probably not the best ways to learn. http://www.theschoolofcreativethinking.com

      • Derek Sheppard

        The “church” of mainstreamed schooling to which we all seemingly must pay due deference, cannot perceive any better way of people being taught. Teaching, however, is not any assurance of learning. But those of us who have questioned schooling, know there are better ways for young people to spend their time, in preparing for their lives after school, learning what they need to know, and have fun, whilst enjoying their all too short childhoods. Democratic schools give young people the gift of a real childhood. Mainstreamed schooling has replaced the workhouses of old in which children were required to work long hours for little remuneration to serve authoritarian masters. Now, in this country at least, they must wear uniforms to attend schooling they are compelled to go to 5 out of 7 days for about 40 weeks a year, and then continue their schooling at home, by doing required school work at home, where schools have been allowed to intrude. Young people spend 12,000 to 15,000 hours of their lives working and serving schools that are mostly state run. Democratic schools are places where young people choose to attend, because they enjoy their time at school where they are in control and exercise choices and experience all democratic values, especially freedom, responsibility and respect, but also equal treatment, fairness, trust and justice.

  • Plenty of schools do this right across the board. The issue is the red tape, the admin, this incessant desire to grade, put things in a matrix, league table and spreadsheet. It’s not the teachers or the kids who need to change, it’s the whole system geared towards economy driven models. I understand that kids need to graduate, but we are so fixated on the results these days and not the process. Time and space is what kids need to truly foster creativity. Let go of some of the structure, switch the bells off and open up the curriculum to more blended / cross curricular projects. It’s all possible. When I see adverts on the side of a bus that say ‘ Get the pre-exam CRAM’ you have to wonder what’s going on. We also need to realise that creativity does not always mean the arts. It could simply be a scribble or a line of copy describing better ways for passengers to move around an airport. When people think creative they often picture paint flying around and chaos ( and there’s nothing wrong with that, this is also great) but let’s talk about creativity in a broader sense and maybe then we can start to plant some real seeds of change…I’m currently gardening! http://www.theschoolofcreativethinking.com

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  • Preston


    I found this post both incredibly interesting and truthful. As a current high school student, I can say that having a more creativity-friendly environment would be a plus. However, I feel that the school system now would also need to have some sort of presence. There should be a general structure as to what students need to know before they graduate. That said, I also believe that students being allowed to choose what and how they want to learn is an amazing idea. If the students are able to pick it for themselves, they will choose something they have an interest in and therefore something that they will actually work towards learning. This type of system would allow for more learning because students will choose something they are willing to learn. Do you think that a change from the school systems of today to the one mentioned would be difficult. What do you think would happen to current teachers?

  • Sergey Yatsenko

    While this research broadly examines a trend in American culture, another study investigated specific individuals over time and revealed that self-reported conceptions of creativity markedly decline after second grade. Whereas 95 percent of second-graders self-reported being creative, only 5 percent of high school seniors believe they are creative. – */S.Y Need Index of Creativity .This is Interpersonal Gradient of Grow of your Creativity .

  • Peter Howarth-Jarratt

    Let’s not make ‘Creativity’ another beacon of successful education. We are in danger of separating its existence and therefore open to standardisation. In New Zealand we still have the small rural school where the teacher reacts to the outdoor world and follows childrens’ curiosity (and yes they do also have an ipad but its outside with them!) In NZ these schools coexist with the new breed of hyper assessed centres with tired children and even more tired teachers. When you actually witness the difference in these schools it is plain to see that we are becoming preoccupied with additional changes and upgrades we need to make to the system to make it better. Guess what? The answer was always there, in the past, in simple education based on the individual and the world around them.

  • Teacher must adopt the new technologies which transform the kids play & learn ways. Technologies like Augmented Reality, Gesture tracking Interactive floor & wall are playing significant role in classroom.

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