By Thom Markham

So far, the challenges of transforming education into a system capable of inspiring students to become skillful, creative, knowledgeable problem-solvers fall into familiar territory: What types of curriculum, standards, skills, strategies, and adaptations to classroom teaching methods will be necessary to do this?

But it’s likely these will prove to be secondary questions. As education crosses the divide between a transmission model and an inquiry model, a more pressing issue will be apparent: How do we identify, attract, nurture, and train teachers who have an “inquiry-friendly” personality?

The issue already is in view. When a teacher comes out from behind the lectern, leaves the front of the room, kneels beside a student to coach them through a problem, offers feedback designed to promote confidence and perseverance, and becomes a true partner in the learning process, the relationship between teacher and student automatically shifts. It’s no longer about telling; it’s about listening, observing, and creating the channel of trust that opens up a personal connection between two individuals.

These are trainable skills. The basics of good coaching can be learned, especially if it’s aimed at helping a student master a math problem, write a better essay, or give a more polished presentation. In fact, if that’s all the inquiry-based system of the future was expected to do, a natural evolution of teacher skill sets would easily take place, reinforced by a new course requirement in every credential program: How to be a guide on the side.

By itself, this would be a valuable step. But scientific advances tell us that training teachers in techniques alone won’t be sufficient. Instead, they reveal that the personality traits of the teacher will matter more than the coaching methods or the curriculum.

Primarily, the interconnected nature of cognition is now visible. Whether titled  interpersonal neurobiology or social neuroscience, leading edge science in the areas of positive emotions and neuroplasticity confirms that the emotional messages exchanged between people affect the physiological processes and biological structures of the brain and body. The embodied rapport between individuals causes shifts in neural networks, frontal lobe functioning, stress levels, even genetic expression. The recent emphasis on inducing a growth mindset in students, including a measurable shift in IQ, is a first step in understanding how the relationship between teacher and student is fundamental to performance.

This research is critical to understanding how inquiry-based teachers will need to engage students. In the coming system, attitude trumps rote learning. Whether students engage, persevere, and open their mind to novel solutions depends on their resiliency, grit, curiosity, creativity, and empathy. Psychologists refer to these as “personal assets,” but they’re far more mysterious than a bank account, and they don’t originate in a textbook, so how do we teach them?

A first clue has been around for more than 20 years. Although overlooked as an inconvenient truth by industrial education, compelling evidence from the fields of adolescent development and resiliency studies show that caring relationships are the key factor in helping young people flourish—a term that encompasses the core attitudes necessary for successful inquiry and deeper learning. Now science has provided the missing link and observable evidence: Emotional interactions between teacher and student drive physiological changes, and thus performance.

This tells us that a teacher’s personality counts, but one additional new fact changes the game even further. Under the deficit model (one of the hidden assumptions of today’s system), the usual approach to emotions is to emphasize the limitations: How judgments and penalties diminish learning. But increasingly, social neuroscience is disruptive to this view. It appears that the connective powers of a relationship only manifest in the presence of sincere care. Love is expressed and conveyed emotionally and physiologically, with unconditional acceptance bestowing the greatest benefits.

The takeaway is humbling, but inescapable: If an inquiry-based system is to succeed, we’ll need human beings in the classroom who know their field, but who also radiate the kind of positive, non-judgmental love that helps students open their minds and hearts. That’s a tall order for most of us, and where it originates, we don’t know. But the foundation of sincere care will be essential, and it will manifest through the deep personality attributes of the teacher in a variety of ways in the classroom. Every teacher, for example, might reflect on the following:

Are you optimistic? Viewing the world as damaged or the future as bleak shuts down the brain by transmitting fear. Maintaining an optimistic attitude is an expression of love, inspiring curiosity and hope, and fostering emotional and physical health. Optimism is essential to teaching: Without hope, the reason to learn disappears.

Are you open? The world is being refreshed and powered by divergent thinking. Outcomes are unclear, even dangerous. But faith in the flexible thinking of the human mind can support young people as they sort out their new world and have the freedom to discover solutions not yet visible. An open attitude activates the frontal lobes, the place of flow and creativity.

Are you appreciative? Deep appreciation gives permission for failure, rather than penalizing for the “wrong” answer. It honors the stops and starts of human development. It conveys the ultimate message of a communal world: We are in this together.

Are you flexible? In inquiry, the journey matters as much as the destination. Constant reflection is a necessity to improving thinking and doing. Metacognition encourages wisdom, the ultimate goal of any worthy education system. Flexibility tells the brain and heart to keep working, keep going—you’re getting there.

Are you purposeful? Purpose binds teacher and student into the high-minded pursuit of solutions that matter. It is the reason that “authentic” education works and inauthentic education struggles. It tightens the connection between the learner and the teacher in ways that spur the natural creative impulse to change and improve the world.

Thom Markham is a psychologist, author, speaker, educator, and consultant to schools and districts focused on project based learning, 21st century skills, and school redesign. Reach him through or tweet him @thommarkham.

Do You have the Personality To Be an Inquiry-Based Teacher? 22 November,2013MindShift

  • jonathan

    “Phew. I don’t have the personality to engage in inquiry based teaching so I guess that means that I’m off the hook. Thank goodness – I didn’t want to change my teaching style anyway!”

    The dangers of thinking that one’s ability to engage in meaningful inquiry based teaching is based on personality is pretty self-evident. What a convenient out if you’re not interested in changing how you teach!

    • john

      That is what’s wrong with you teachers.You want to do it your way.There are many many ways people learn.I have add and luckily I had some very good teachers and coaches.The one thing teachers don’t understand is not everyone wants to go to college witch is how most teachers think the goal is. You need to teach them how to count money so when they actually get hired in an entry level job at a mini market or any job dealing with money and the public. They don’t look like an idiot because they can’t run a register! They also should also have some exposure to the stock market.All students not just academic classes all levels should have this class.P.S.please put your red pen down,there is no reason to grade this.

  • Heidi Laidemitt

    Wow, this really resonated with me. As I become more “me” as a teacher (inextricably connected to cultivating myself as a person), I feel like I have a better understanding of HOW I can have an inquiry-friendly personality that welcomes (if not thrives on) optimism, openness, appreciation, flexibility, and purpose. I would best describe it as defining yourself through the mere actual interaction with others. When you do this as a teacher, you do not “tell” or even “instruct”; rather, you discover, you believe in a future that is co-constructed with your students. Judgments and punishments absolutely diminish learning as they are rooted in control, not in freedom and love. The question posited of where this originates is intriguing… I have a hunch that it is rooted in the belief that there are no absolutes (except love) and while moments feel finite, everything is in fact infinite, so how could any one individual truly know anything that is true for everyone? Anyway, would love to read more about this. As a teacher, I love theory, but I also find the application of it more profound and revolutionary.

    • Irma de Jesús

      Dear Heidi,

      i agree with you and i think your students are very fortunate that you are their teacher,,.


  • Andrew A

    Teaching is and will always be about who you are, not what you know. Think back to the people who made a big, and positive impact on you life and it probably relates to ‘who they were and not what they knew’. I’m amazed people are taken by this ‘revelation’. (Maybe its because science can back it up? ) Glad its out there now and perhaps when it comes to selecting teachers the old adage that “good players don’t always make good coaches’ is not so out of left field as when may have thought.

  • A teacher

    First, we need to make sure that we have at least a rudimentary understanding of the language in which we will be teaching. Second, we need to make sure we can write. I couldn’t get past the first three sentences of this article, because the writing is so unclear. Please: make it EASY for your readers to understand you. That does NOT mean using small words, it means use sentence structure and syntax to convey meaning.

    • john

      Please read the post above from John.your attitude sucks.

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  • Mary Sue Thompson Polleys

    I earned a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, but phrases like this one still baffle me: “…the divide between a transmission model and an inquiry model…” Good teachers have always done both (transmitted & promoted inquiry). Good teachers have always been good coaches. My best teachers and athletic coaches were transmitting as they coached me into discovering. They were definitely transmitting to me the knowledge they already had. Sometimes through direct instruction and then coaching as they observed. New teachers get confused by these terms and think they are not supposed to “transmit” but just let the learners flounder unless or until their inquiry leads them to discover. t’s not one or the other (transmission vs inquiry). It’s both.

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  • Windy St. George

    I do this as a student teacher. It works when you co-teach, I don’t know how it would work alone in a class of 30 5th graders. I wish all classes were co-teaching classes.

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  • Flying Fantastic

    Some of us have been doing this for decades; where were you?

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  • Professora Margarete

    Loved this article! I´ve been trying my best to change a very dumb way of teaching we have in Brazil, specially in private schools.
    Teachers that are DEAD and don´t know!

    • Robert Thorn

      Professora Margarete – let’s connect – I am on LinkedIn – as Robert Thorn of Developing Real Learners – together we might manage more. 🙂

      • Professora Margarete

        I´ve just sent a message on LindedIn, thank you for the interest!

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  • Melissa Gresalfi

    I agree that the tone of the article was a bit off putting, and indeed seems to undermine the very message it’s trying to convey by suggesting that some people are capable and others are not. But I think there is an important takeaway from this piece, which is the claim that if you want to follow students’ thinking (inquiry teaching), you need to learn to listen and respect it. There are many, many nuances to this issue, which this article doesn’t deeply engage. However, with respect to the question of relationships, the research is pretty exciting, I think. Hunter Gehlbach recently published an article with his colleagues that offers a glimpse into some pretty straightforward ways to foster relationships in classrooms that suggests that even finding something in common between students and teachers’ supports learning in schools. I recommend taking a look: Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E., Hsu, L., King, A., McIntyre, J., & Rogers, T. (in press). Creating birds of similar feathers: Leveraging similarity to improve teacher-student relationships and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology.

  • What a convenient out if you’re not interested in changing how you teach! color selections granite countertops

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