To respond to the Do Now, you can comment below or tweet your response. Be sure to begin your tweet with @KQEDEdspace and end it with #DoNowMoon

For more info on how to use Twitter, click here.

Do Now

What do you think is the most important scientific or ethical concern to consider about mining the moon? Why? How should private companies that venture into space exploration be regulated?


Out of Silicon Valley’s culture of innovation comes a new slew of for-profit companies to open up space for tourism, rapid-earth imaging, and even mining the moon. One such company is Moon Express, based in Mountain View, California. The company is competing for Google’s Lunar X prize — a contest that awards $20 million to the first private venture that can land a robot on the moon, have it travel 500 meters and bring back high-definition video and images of the lunar surface.

However, Moon Express’ ultimate goal is to start mining the moon for precious metals that could be used in everything from electric car batteries to missiles. Moon Express is not the only company considering mining the moon. In fact, NASA is opening up non-financial support to help private companies develop robotic lunar landing capabilities which could ultimately be used for commercial activities as well as scientific and academic research.

The idea of mining the moon raises some serious questions such as, “Is it legal to mine the moon?” The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 is a set of guiding principles for nations to follow regarding space exploration and provides that exploration of space should be carried out for the interest of all countries and that no country can claim territorial rights in outer space. Some people argue this treaty does not apply to private companies.

However, the treaty does specify that states shall be responsible for space activities carried out by government and non-government organizations. Bob Richards, the CEO and Co-founder of Moon Express, says he believes that anybody has the right to use the moon as long as they don’t claim it for themselves. He says that Moon Express will only claim the resources it has mined. As the technology for mining the moon becomes increasingly viable, what concerns, both scientific and ethical, need to be considered before mining begins? What do you think could be some benefits and drawbacks of mining the moon for resources?


KQED Science video Silicon Valley Goes to Space
Explore the goals of Moon Express, a private company hoping to one day mine the moon for precious resources. Begin viewing this video at 5:05.

To respond to the Do Now, you can comment below or tweet your response. Be sure to begin your tweet with @KQEDedspace and end it with #DoNowMoon

For more info on how to use Twitter, click here.

We encourage students to reply to other people’s tweets to foster more of a conversation. Also, if students tweet their personal opinions, ask them to support their ideas with links to interesting/credible articles online (adding a nice research component) or retweet other people’s ideas that they agree/disagree/find amusing. We also value student-produced media linked to their tweets like infographics or more extensive blog posts to represent their ideas. Of course, do as you can… and any contribution is most welcomed.

More Resources

NPR article Is Mining On The Moon’s Horizon?
This article discusses interests in mining the moon for resources and touches on some philosophical opposition to moon mining.

United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs document Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
This document outlines the guiding principles of space exploration that were agreed upon in 1967 by the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

NASA article Is Mining Rare Minerals on the Moon Vital to National Security?
Explore the issue of whether mining the moon has national security implications as some rare earth elements are becoming increasingly important in new technologies and national security applications.

Are There Ethical Concerns to Mining the Moon? 8 March,2017Lauren Farrar

  • SnodonStudents

    I Believe that mining on the moon could be more than beneficial simply because,

    the elements the moon has aren’t accessible from earth.

    A video we watched spoke about how one trip there and back and a tank of
    the gas from the moon, has enough energy to power the whole world for a
    solid year without a problem.

    With that being said, there are also Cons to these Pros. When we began
    to mine the earth, specific minerals of sorts starting depleting and the
    cost for each started going up “Asteroids have been hitting the moon
    for a long time, especially on the back side,” Bigelow said at the
    briefing, arguing that mining rare earths and other valuable resources
    would be even easier on the lunar surface.

    He described future miners at these asteroid impact sites as “just
    walking around, picking stuff up from the ground.” , That’s a quote from
    the People from National Geographic explaining that it would be easier
    to mine on lunar surface , yet they don’t explain how mining to much
    could be detrimental. Also there has been wars over land so if any 1
    specific group of people try to claim the land, it could start a war.

    We started having issues on earth when it became industrialized, imagine
    what would could happen to the moon if its just used for harvesting
    things we need, we could bleed it dry of the things we want/need.

    All in all , i believe it’d be a great idea, only if they value what they get and not take to much of one thing. ← Link with quote.

    Typed by : Dustin M

  • SnodonStudents

    I really don’t care what they do to the moon , my opinion doesnt
    matter because humans are such an immoderate species that they believe
    once they have used and wasted all their resources they think its okay
    to use another places resources instead of creating ways to be more
    resourceful and re use more resources. When they get done mining the
    moon and strip it of all its resources , they are just going to hop to
    another planets moon . and when we start mining the moon , the
    consistent flow of of rocket smoke and fuel released into our ozone and
    it is only going to further damage our ozone . so you tell me if you
    think mining the moon is a good thing .

    • Jeremy Hiatt

      Calm down

      • Derek Bice

        I agree with Jeremy

        • dwiltse96

          this guy definitely needs to calm down good point.

          • Matt Cleland

            gfhgdggjkdjdfgjsdfjgj sdfjgdfjklgdfgkj;dfkgdfjkjgdfjkgksdfgsdfg;sdfgsd;fgsdfglsdfgsdfgsdf

        • Matt Cleland


      • Matt Cleland
  • Aaron

    From SnodonStudents: I think that if we do allow mining the moon it would most definalty have to be regulated. For example, they should not be allowed to mine until there is an established government, justice system, education services, and laws so that as soon as the people are up there it won’t be pioneer living and have no laws. Also there should be a tariff on all materials exported of the moon, the higher the material price the higher the tariff.

    Aaron W

  • SnodonStudents

    The most important thing to worry about is the safety of the people and
    the cost. Since the measures we would have to take for the people to be
    safe, the cost would be at least 5,000 dollars, which the cost of mining
    the moon isn’t included. UNSW believes that the He-3 would seem helpful
    to us, but the cost we would have to take to at least get the materials
    needed to mine the moon to the moon, it would be a billion dollar
    project. Furthermore, the safety of the people who want/need to travel
    there isn’t really a concern, we still need to be worried about them and
    how it would effect their families if they didn’t return. But all in
    all I personally don’t care about the mining of the moon.

  • SnodonStudents

    I believe the biggest scientific concern is the effect it will have on
    the tides. Think about it the moon controls the tides any surface
    damage could affect them majorly and the ocean animals migrate with the
    tides if the moons surface is damaged enough the tides will just stop
    happening meaning more beached whales, sharks, and dolphins.


  • SnodonStudents

    I am actually against this “ Mining the Moon “. A few reasons why i am
    against this project they are trying to do is for starters, if they
    actually make it to the moon and mine it they will become overwhelmed
    with it and want more and more until they mine the entire moon and then
    we have no night time and we all die. The reason why I think that will
    happen is because its a natural way of living you want to be wealthy.
    Another reason why I am against this project is if they successfully
    mine the moon they have to release their technology and/or vehicle to
    the public and with the public having access to that kind of technology
    it will lead to someone somewhere making a vehicle that flies and then
    it will change the world as we know it. We are not ready for huge
    technological advances because we are not responsible enough to actually
    obey the new laws that would come with this. I think if they actually
    mined the moon it would cause the world to “ Destroy “ it would be
    basically every man for himself. No one would have jobs because they
    would make robots to take our jobs and we would all be fighting to
    The reason why i think its going to ” Destroy ” the world is like the
    holocaust. Adolf Hitler has power over everyone aka (NASA) in this scenario , then they come out with all kinds of new technology and run
    experiments on them using us as test dummies, and one by one it will
    just kill us off. If they mine the moon and it slowly destroys the moon
    it will kill us all anyways so basically this whole concept is going to
    turn out like the holocaust and kill hundreds of thousands before
    anything stops.

    • CJofGrove

      Do you have any idea what you’re talking about?

    • How mad you are???

  • SnodonStudents

    I believe that if you were to pull material out of the moon by mining
    methods (such as strip mining) it would take mass away from the moon.
    this change could increase the gravitational pull on the moon from the
    earth, which would bring it close to the earth and eventually the moon
    would crash into us killing everyone and ending life as we know it. I
    have a theory that might prevent this scenario by using regulations
    that would govern mining companies. as they pull resources away from the
    moon. They must put concrete or some well fitting material that will
    keep the moon’s mass at a stable amount. (7.34767309 × 1022 kilograms,
    mass of the moon)

    As long as they keep the mass of it close to the original amount as
    possible, everything will be ok. An international spacing mining
    organization would have to be created to enforce such rules and protect
    the moon.

    over all, my belief is that we should not mine the moon but mine comets that come close to earth.

  • SnodonStudents

    The most scientific concern of mining the moon is mining too much of it.
    The government has always been interested in the money, just as miners
    long ago were mining for gold and silver, I strongly believe that they
    will do the same thing to the moon. Mining too much of the moon would
    mean the end of our planet, but there is a way to save it, limiting the
    amount of rocks they can mine is one way, not mining the moon at all is


  • SnodonStudents

    I really don’t care what they do to the moon. My opinion doesn’t matter
    because humans are such an immoderate species. They believe once they
    have used and wasted all their resources they think its okay to use
    another places resources. Instead, they could create ways to be more
    resourceful and re use more resources. When they get done mining the
    moon and strip it of all its resources, they are just going to hop to
    another planet’s moon. When we start mining the moon, the consistent
    flow of rocket smoke and fuel will be released into our ozone which is
    only going to further damage our ozone. So you tell me if you think
    mining the moon is a good thing. It will basically be just like what
    America does to every other country. We use all our resources and then
    go and invade another country. For example America is taking all of the
    Middle East’s oi.

    • Matt Cleland

      CALM DOWN!!!!!

  • SnodonStudents

    With mining the moon there are good things that could happen, then there
    are bad things that could happen. NASA spend millions of dollars to
    create there ships, make sure the people have food, and for everything
    they got in space. The good things would be that people would see new
    things, as the stars, galaxies, skis. There are valuable things up in
    spaces that we could definitely use. But, then there are bad things. The
    moon is what controls the tides; would mining the moon affect the
    tides? Nobody could ever know until we try it. The united states in in
    debit 16 trillion dollars, and if we send men and women to spaces of a
    fishing trip to see if something would work, that debit would go up.
    Although, If it was to work and us be able to get that helium 3, I think
    we would be able to pay back some of that money. Helium 3 sells for
    $5000 for a liter of it, just think about if we had 500 liters of it, we
    would be bringing in $2,500,000, and i think that, that would help a
    lot with the debit as long as we have people willing to give it to the
    government and start paying people off.

  • SnodonStudents

    As technology gets better and being used in space sooner or later, it
    will be usable for the public which I think it would be a waste because i
    don’t think the public would have much use of it. We may be running out
    of resources on Earth but mining the moon would have drastic changes on
    Earth. Although there is some people who would say “If we can mine
    Earth we can mine the moon” but those people probably didn’t think of
    the safety regulations for the vehicles, the people that go up to the
    moon, and the equipment,the moon is not like Earth. So safety must be
    one of the main priorities along with the negative effects it would have
    on Earth.


  • SnodonStudents

    The moon has many resources that the earth could use, but with the fact
    that no one owns the moon there could be a war. People would be trying
    to fight over the resources.
    Ashley D.

  • SnodonStudents

    I believe that scientifically mining the moon is crazy ! Are the
    benefits really worth taking away something that controls the tides and
    lights up the night ? Researchers say that mining the moon is going to
    be easier and they would not have to take as much or as long to get what
    they need . But the lasting effects of mining there may be more than we
    can handle. For all we know it would destroy the moon, and then what
    would become of the tides or the other things that rely on the moons
    presence. Personally i think that it would be a great idea, if we could
    decrease the risks. It would replace the resources we take from the


  • SnodonStudents

    The things people think about when mining the moon comes up are how much
    would it cost; what is going to happen in the future; and who is going
    to be doing this? there is a contest going on right now with a $20
    million award to the first private company to go to the moon and come
    back with good pictures and nice video quality. A concern that is
    brought up when mining the moon is what is going to happen in the long
    run after we take the stuff off of the moon. As of right now nobody owns
    the moon because of a treaty that says nobody owns it. They should be
    regulated by NASA to make sure that nothing happens to the moon as they
    are mining it. If there were to be a new discussion over who owns the
    moon a war would happen because everybody wants control over the moon.

  • SnodonStudents

    the main idea is that the moon is a big controversial about mining the
    moon.The idea of mining the moon raises some serious questions such as,
    “Is it legal to mine the moon?” The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of
    1967 is a set of guiding principles for nations to follow regarding
    space exploration to claim territorial rights in outer space.
    the main idea is that the moon is a big controversial about mining the
    moon.The idea of mining the moon raises some serious questions such as,
    “Is it legal to mine the moon?” The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of
    1967 is a set of guiding principles for nations to follow regarding
    space exploration to claim territorial rights in outer space.

  • SnodonStudents

    I see lots of reasons that people would want to mine the like how
    much money they could make off of the amount of moon rocks. But there
    are a lot of bad outcomes if you try to mine the moon. If you mine the
    moon you could cause a war with a lot of other people that are trying to
    mine in the same area and cause a lot of deaths. Another reason it can
    be a bad cause of mining the moon is because if you take enough from the
    moon it could possibly become an asteroid and float away. If the moon
    was to disappear it would take everything out of orbit and if the sun
    gets too far away from the earth the earth it will cause an ice age to
    the point that if you don’t have a fire inside or outside you can freeze
    to death in just a few seconds but if you’re sitting by a fire in side
    and u go outside you will freeze to death immediately. So i think it
    would be very bad to mine the moon cause everyone’s lives would be in
    danger which is not good at all.

  • SnodonStudents

    When i think of people mining the moon, I believe there is a variety of
    different effects that could happen if any of the countries mined the
    moon.One of the main things is that there are not any regulations on the
    moon except that no one can claim the moon as theirs, mining the moon
    could possibly start another world war with the counties because the
    valuable resources on the moon such as helium 3, gold from asteroids ,
    platinum which people can bring back to earth and sell for a fortune and
    become rich.If you don’t think that mining the moon could cause a world
    war with other countries, look back to the cold war with russia and the
    united states over the moon.The other thing I think could happen if we
    mine the moon is, what if we damage it or mine too deep and destroy it?

    The moon is what controls the tides in the ocean, so we wouldn’t have a
    normal tide cycle any more. Another thing is that the moon acts as a
    shield to protect the earth from asteroids and meteors, and over the
    course of time we would get by more meteors than usual.

  • SnodonStudents

    At this point in time nobody, has ownership over the moon its just a
    rock that spins around us. But there are people that are trying to go to
    the moon and mine the moon. Now think about it they really can’t stop
    them from doing anything, to the moon due to the fact that nobody owns
    it. but theres a law that says “Under current Un law”, member states are
    Prohibited from appropriating the moon. Ian Crawford Professor of
    Planetary said there was now a case for developing the treaty to include
    private companies that may want to exploit its for its minerals. If
    these people plan to destroy the moon like all the other natural
    minerals that earth had like when the gold rush was active they
    literally mined out all of the gold minerals and I don’t think that the
    people of earth will allow this to happen to the moon.

  • SnodonStudents

    Possible ethical concerns depending on how the moon is mined are the
    future treatment of workers that mine the moon. If we send people up
    there to mine it like we have workers mining on Earth. Being away from
    earth the legal problems the might churn up would be hard to enforce.
    Another concern is exactly how people will have property on the moon.
    How will that be regulated? If there is no ownership at all what would
    prevent someone from mining in the same area as the person that
    originally got there or is currently mining the land.

    For the possible future ethical treatment of moon miners if that
    indeed becomes a concern; there would need to be rules established or
    some way to supervise a mining project thousands of miles away. If you
    look back in history, corporations, groups, or individuals have abused
    their freedom from lack of a governing body. They were able to do that
    for partly the reason that the areas where they were conducting business
    were far away from the countries the started from. King Leopold II of
    Belgium used his power and money to abuse the people that are now part
    of the Congo Free State. He had a private army that allowed him to do

    For ownership, how will that be solved? People have been fighting
    over land for more than a millennium. There would have to be some sort
    of at least temporary ownership or people would get into others areas of
    mining. Instead of trying to find areas that are rich with minerals
    they would just go to an area already found. There would need to be some
    sort of rules to how you can establish a plot of land for your own. The
    Mexican-American war was started over a land dispute that is now part
    of Texas and other surrounding states. The dispute happened because
    there were no set rules to land ownership. There would need to be rules
    for land ownership so no fighting would occur.

  • SnodonStudents

    I do not believe that companies should mine The Moon because of the
    international or corporate problems that it could cause. I believe that
    corporate companies would have an all out brawl over the resources or
    materials that are mined from The Moon. For example, expert Timothy
    Nelson explains that their problems would not be during their operations
    but when they try to resell their products, also another space-law
    expert named Wayne White believes that a company could claim ownership
    of the cave or ice that they find, but that does not mean that people
    could possibly steal the ice that they own. Also I believe that possibly
    a war could break out over The Moon, because of the ownership of The
    Moon or certain parts of The Moon. Many countries on earth are known to
    be selfish and want what other countries have and if the moon is owned
    by one country then what will happen if we want what they have, for
    example the oil fields in Iran, America wanted the oil that they had and
    so we started a war over it and for that reason I do not believe that
    mining the moon is a good idea. But since we are going to The Moon, I
    believe that no country or company should be allowed to own The Moon and
    that extreme precautions should be taken when people are headed or
    going to The Moon, yesterday we watched a video and a guy stated that
    deaths are going to happen, no matter what but I think they should try
    to find a way to make it the safest they can and that people should have
    to sign a contract before they actually go just so that they know the
    problems that they will run into.

  • Guest

    We went meme-crazy!

  • Guest

  • Devon Schildge

    Of course there are going to be ethical concerns when speaking of using unnatural ways to get products. Especially when talking about something literally out of this world. The moon is a difficult situation because no one exactly owns the moon. People could put in the argument that its to sacred and we shouldn’t mess with something that we don’t really understand but there are also people who would rather try and get resources from there than damage the earth more. I think that if it is possible to accomplish this without harming the moon it should be done rather than draining the earths resources more. Also as power demands increase and there is this helium-3 element that can help progress nuclear fission power it is most likely going to happen no matter what. We as a world will have to decide is it better to strip the earth of more resources or try the things outside of this world?

    • Matt Cleland


    • NateDawg

      Devon you’re so well educated 😉

  • CJofGrove

    There are many things to consider here. For example, how can we profit from such an expensive endeavor? How will we divide lunar territory, if at all? How can we make it safe to spend long periods of time on the moon? Mining the moon is an idea that has vast potential, but will take an incredible amount of planning and preparation before serious moves can be made. Personally, I think we should be putting forth a lot of effort towards making this work. With the world’s rapidly rising population, Mother Earth can’t breastfeed us for much longer. Utilizing nearby planets and moons for resources is likely an essential step in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. If mining on the moon becomes a success, we become one step closer to universal mastery.

  • FresnoRaisin97

    First of all I would like to make my main point. Do not mine on the moon. If the moon controls tides and stuff like that then who knows what would happen if we decide to start messing with the mass? I think I don’t want to find out. Also, the moon plays an important role in the sleep habits of young children. Imagine the decrease in sleep for children ages 3-5 if parents could not read their children “goodnight moon”! If this were to actually happen then children in thirty years would not even know what the moon originally was. And “Goodnight Industrial Sky-Mine” doesn’t have the same playful ring. Plus, I have a feeling that some other countries would have some sort of issue with this whole thing. No moon digging. Also, I would like to point out the grammatical mistake made by the author: “anybody has the right to use the moon as long as they don’t claim it for themselves”. It should be he/she and himself/herself.

  • Elyssa Bolinger

    I Think mining the moon is a really inconsiderate idea and very risky. because the mass of the moon and the rotations of the moon control the waters tide. if they mine the moon it will decrease the mass and could screw up tides and time of day. Also the moon means a lot to earth. People depend on the moon and stars for a light at night, also when i was little the moon was my friend. i know that sounds crazy but i talked to it and if i couldn’t find it i would ask my mom where it was. the moon helps the universe stay in contact and rotation..without it..nothing will matter anymore, and schools wont be able to explain how the universe rotates and works.

  • Joe LeBlanc

    I don’t think there are ethical concerns to mining on the moon. In fact I think it’s going to happen no matter what now with private companies getting involved and being in charge of space missions to go to the moon. The reward alone from mining on the moon will be the drive of these companies to accomplish this task. The amount of money it takes to get there is minimal to the reward you will receive from extracting the precious materials.

  • Josh

    According to and the moon acts as a counter balance to the suns pulls, with out the moon we would spin at a much faster rate and we would have winds up to 100mph. This would be bad. But here’s the thing we aren’t going to mine the entire moon. If someone wants to go mine the moon a little as long as they don’t take away to much of it where we don’t have the counter balance I could care less. Other than a counterbalance it currently has other purpose so why not mine it a little.

  • dwiltse96

    for me it seems like there are really no ethical concerns since it sounds like everyone has rights to the moon. it is really all about money since space travel and to get all the mining equipment on the moon will cost millions and is it really worth it for the minerals.

  • brandon delph

    yes there are ethical concerns because it would be using an unnatural way too mine the moon. i believe it would cost too much too get there for such little precious metals we would come back with. the moon has never been mined before and we really don’t know and understand the consequences we could have on our plate. i am very interested too see what NASA comes up with too mine the moon because it will cost lot of money. i believe we need to strip the earth completely of resources before we start going out of this world. there is really not an in cress of demand for moons supply right now at all.

  • daniel j. eberhart

    I think that private companies should be able to mine and explore space. there is no ethical norms at stake, the moon could have “valuable resources like helium 3 and rare earth metals.”
    I firmly believe that companies, if they so chose, should have the ability to reach beyond the earths atmosphere. The NASA program is allowing companies the send robots on the surface “The contract will be a “no funds exchanged” Space Agreement Act, which means the government will not be directly funding the effort, but will receive NASA support.”
    it is a good thing that NASA is helping the companies get into space, they can move space exploration the private sector.

  • Derek Bice

    I think that we should be able to mine on the moon because it could really help advance our society. I don’t see what could go wrong, because the moon doesn’t have any life forms that live there, so it’s not like we’re destroying anyone’s home or anything. As you can see from the following link, the helium 3 that is found on the moon could really help solve our energy crisis, so it would be very beneficial .

  • NateDawg

    Mining the moon is something that we should stay away from for as long as possible. Nearly every source of resources on Earth is a source of conflict between nations and governments. What would make the Moon any different? As soon as a government began to get ore from the Moon, other governments and nations would follow suit. After time nations would begin competing for land and resources on the moon. Not long after there would be an all out war over the resources held by the moon, and just like that all of the resources we got from the moon would be expelled in the war. It’s just human nature that we will be greedy over such a thing.

  • yomama

    snodonstudents you can suck a fat cock you douchbag sonofabitch ratchetass whorebag!!

  • Amanda Stinger

    I believe that mining from the moon won’t necessarily be a bad thing. May cause some issues between countries but over all might advance our society. I think that we should do more research on the subject, study the consequences. We drain so many natural resources from earth that eventually we will run out. The moon may help us. It would cost a lot but the substances/minerals that we bring back will be much more substantial then the money we put into the project. Mining on the moon would be beneficial to us. Dangerous yes, but worth the risk.

  • RobinHood82

    I think we should think about the bad environmental effects that mining and exploitation of resources has had on our own planet, before we go and do the same thing to the moon.

  • Nathan Cao

    Personally, I think that mining on the moon doesn’t have any ethical concerns. I think that the moon plays a crucial point in the future of the inhabitants of the Earth. A lot of people are saying that people will get carried away with this whole moon mining business. However, we have to start somewhere. If we never try to mine the moon, then that’s it: we’re never going to mine it. That’s why I think that we have to start somewhere, and I think here is a good place. The metals obtained from the moon could even lead to scientific discoveries… Think about the possibilities!

  • Alberto Garcia

    I believe we shouldn’t mine the moon until we understand the effects that could result from mining the moon. I think that if we eventually do mine the moon it will benefit us because one day we will run out of resources here on Earth, so mining the moon will be helpful.

  • Chase L

    Entrepreneurship is what drives the world, whether it’s the government wanting to create and expand or a start up company wedging its way into the market. The only way for these types of groups to exist is there has to be a demand for whatever
    these organizations are supplying. If there’s no demand the suppliers will

    When someone says there’s no way to stop NASA from mining or destroying the moon that is false. NASA isn’t the ones
    driving this enterprise, it’s everyone who goes out to the store everyday and
    buys groceries, fills up their gas tanks, and turns on the lights in the
    morning. If you don’t believe companies should mine the moon or create a
    business for bringing people into space, than you our keeping humanity from
    growing and evolving which we have been doing for thousands of years.

    This isn’t a question of ethics; it’s a test to show how greedy people are. The
    foundation of our world is to consume, evolve, and expand this isn’t any
    different from what we’ve been doing since the beginning of mankind. Money is
    only worth what the next person will give you for it.



Lauren Farrar

Lauren has a background in biology, education, and filmmaking. She has had the privilege to work on a diverse array of educational endeavors and is currently a producer for KQED Learning's YouTube series Above the Noise. Lauren's career has taken her to the deepest parts of the ocean to film deep sea hydrothermal vents for classroom webcasts, into the pool to film synchronized swimmers to teach about the pH scale, and on roller coasters to create a video about activation energy. And, she’s done it all for the sake of education. Lauren loves communicating science! Follow her on twitter @LFarrarAtWork

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